Philippine-American War, 1899-1902 by Arnaldo Dumindin

Execution on the Luneta of Filipino rebels ca 1896-97

  Philippine-American War, 1899-1902 by Arnaldo Dumindin http://www.filipinoamericanwar.com/   Background: The Philippine Revolution and the Spanish-American War The Philippines (LEFT, 1898 map) was a colony of Spain from 1571 to 1898. Spanish rule came to an end as a result of the Philippine Revolution and US involvement with Spain's other major colony, Cuba. The Philippine archipelago, with  a total land area of 300,000 sq km (115,831 sq mi), comprises 7,107 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, located close to the present-day countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, Palau and the island of Taiwan. The capital, Manila, is 6,977 miles (11,228 km) distant --- "as the crow flies" --- across the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco, California, U.S.A. The two cities are separated by 6,061 nautical miles of water. Luzon and Mindanao are the two largest islands, anchoring the archipelago in the north and south. Luzon has an area of 104,700 sq km (40,400 sq mi) and Mindanao has an area of 94,630 sq km (36,540 sq mi). Together, they account for 66% of the country's total landmass. Only nine other islands have an area of more than 2,600 sq km (1,000 sq mi) each: Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol and Masbate. More than 170 dialects are spoken in the archipelago, almost all of them belonging to the Borneo-Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. Twelve major dialects  – Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, Pangasinense; Southern Bicol, Kiniray-a, Maranao, Maguindanao and Tausug (the last three in Muslim areas of Southern Philippines) – make up about 90% of the population. The population in 1898 was about 9 million. More at: http://www.filipinoamericanwar.com/ … [Read more...]

Book: Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War Truxillo by Charles

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Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War By Charles Truxillo Early modern warfare between Spaniards and Muslims for control of the Philippine Islands was set within the context of the larger Iberian offensive against the Islamic world in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The struggle was on a global scale from the coast of North Africa to the Southern Seas. Moreover, the antiquity of Christian-Muslim wars in Spain and the flood tide of Counter-Reformation Catholic and Sufi-Islamic expansions in the sixteenth century gave special significance to theconvergence of these factors in the Philippines. The contemporary resurgence of Islam and the continuing rebellion of the Moros in the southern Philippines makes this study relevant to modern concerns. This survey will establish the circumstances of the Ibero-Islamic World War in the context of traditional, pre-modern societies on the verge of modernity. Change in the nature of historical action was represented during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, not by Spain and Portugal or any Islamic society, but rather by Holland and later England. The Iberian and Islamic participants of the first global conflict will appear to be traditional societies involved in geo-political circumstances beyond their capacities as pre-modern, agrarian-based, citied peoples. The Moro Wars in the Philippines represent the closing of an older world in Island Southeast Asia; the demise of Iberian dreams of an oriental empire, and the halting of a thousand years of hemisphere-wide Islamic expansionism. Modernity was the outcome of the seventeenth century's technical-capitalist revolution which established the enlarged political franchise of Northern Europe. These developments, in turn, were the instruments of European world domination in the nineteenth century. During the twentieth century, modernization has evolved non-Western European forms, spreading to Russia, Eastern Europe, Turkey, India, and the Far East. In contrast, the majority of Hispanic and Islamic societies remain underdeveloped, seemingly transfixed by the accomplishments of the past. The legacy of the Ibero-Islamic World War is still manifest in the charismatic politics, military governments, religious agendas, landed aristocracies, literary educations, patrimonial families, and masculine styles of most Muslim and Latin American societies. … [Read more...]

Philippines & Mexico push to nominate Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to World Heritage List

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PH, Mexico push to nominate Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to World Heritage List - From the Department of Foreign Affairs Original Article at: http://www.gov.ph/2015/04/28/ph-mexico-push-to-nominate-manila-acapulco-galleon-trade-route-to-world-heritage-list/ An Experts’ Roundtable Meeting was held at the University of Santo Tomas (UST) on April 23 as part of the preparation of the Philippines for the possible transnational nomination of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to the World Heritage List. The nomination will be made jointly with Mexico. The following are the experts and the topics they discussed during the roundtable meeting: Dr. Celestina Boncan on the Tornaviaje; Dr. Mary Jane A. Bolunia on Shipyards in the Bicol Region; Mr. Sheldon Clyde Jago-on, Bobby Orillaneda, and Ligaya Lacsina on Underwater Archaeology; Dr. Leovino Garcia on Maps and Cartography; Fr. Rene Javellana, S.J. on Fortifications in the Philippines; Felice Sta. Maria on Food; Dr. Fernando Zialcita on Textile; and Regalado Trota Jose on Historical Dimension. The papers presented and discussed during the roundtable meeting will be synthesized into a working document to establish the route’s Outstanding Universal Value.     The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade bears its remarkable significance for linking four continents and two oceans, contributing to the development of trade in Asia, Europe, North and South America. It paved the way for the widest possible exchange of material goods, cultural traditions and practices, knowledge and belief systems and peoples. For some 250 years, it served as a formidable bridge between East and West. Today, it is considered as an early manifestation of globalization, having influenced the politics, philosophy, commerce, and trade development of almost the entire world. The Galleon Trade firmly put Manila on the world map as the largest trade hub in the Orient with solid historical links to its neighbors. The Route becomes symbolic of UNESCO and the World Heritage Convention’s aims and objectives in establishing peace across nations through shared heritage and a culture of understanding. The roundtable meeting and the nomination of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to the World Heritage List are initiatives of the UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines and the Department of Foreign Affairs, in partnership with the UST Graduate School – Center for Conservation of Cultural Property and Environment in the Tropics. Following the roundtable discussion of the Philippine experts, a series of meetings will be convened for its launch in the international community. dfa.gov.ph … [Read more...]

The Bolomen of the Revolution by Perry Gil S. Mallari , FIGHT Times Editor

An illustration by J. Alexander Mackay published in the book Bamboo Tales by Ira L. Reeves (1900) IMAGE FROM PROJECT GUTENBERG

The Bolomen of the Revolution by Perry Gil S. Mallari , FIGHT Times Editor Arma Blanca is the name of the clandestine regiment of Filipino bolomen active during the revolution against the Spaniards and the Americans. Arma Blanca is a Spanish singular term for a bladed weapon like a sword or a knife. A fairly recent mention of Arma Blanca was made in Orlino Ochosa’s book Bandoleros: The Outlawed Guerillas of the Philippine-American War of 1903 to 1907 (New Day Publications, 1995), and it reads, “Manila’s Arma Blanca that phantom army of bolomen whom General Luna had so much depended upon in his bold attack of Manila at the start of the war with the Americans.” An earlier reference to Arma Blanca can be found in The Philippines Past and Present, by Dean C. Worcester released in 1914. Worcester, who had served as Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine Islands from 1901 to 1913 and was a member of the Philippine Commission from 1900 to 1913, wrote, “The regiment of Armas Blancas had already been raised in Tondo and Binondo. It was in existence there in December, 1898, and may have been originally organized to act against Spain.” The bolo being both a farm implement and a weapon was carried with impunity by Filipinos even in the presence of Spanish and American soldiers. Its blade is often designed heavily weighted towards the tip for ease of chopping hence when used in combat, it can easily severe a limb with a single stroke. The Philippine bolo boasts of a sturdy construction and minor dents on its blade could easily be fixed by a little hammering and filing. In the absence of guns, the Philippine revolutionary forces greatly depended upon the bolo in inflicting casualty on the enemy. A part of Worcester’s book reads, “There is no reason for believing that this is a complete statement of sandatahan [Filipino armed groups] organized in Manila by the end of January, and yet this statement gives a force of at least 6,330 men. General Otis said that this force had been reported to him as being 10,000 men. It is probably true that only a small number of them had rifles; but armed with long knives and daggers they could have inflicted much damage in a sudden night attack in the narrow and badly lighted streets of Manila.” Filipino bolomen even received precise instructions on how to use the blade in conducting raids to snatch the guns of their enemies. A part of Emilio Aguinaldo’s order to the sandatahan was included in Worcester’s book, and it reads, “At the moment of the attack the sandatahan should not attempt to secure rifles from their dead enemies, but shall pursue, slashing right and left with bolos until the Americans surrender, and after there remains no enemy who can injure them, they may take the rifles in one hand and the ammunition in the other.” Continue reading story at: http://www.manilatimes.net/the-bolomen-of-the-revolution/104227/ … [Read more...]

BOOK: True Version of the Philippine Revolution By Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy President of the Philippine Republic., Tarlak (Philippine Islands), 23rd September, 1899

Aguinaldo-Emilio

True Version of the Philippine Revolution By Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy President of the Philippine Republic. Tarlak (Philippine Islands), 23rd September, 1899 To All Civilized Nations and Especially to the Great North American Republic I dedicate to you this modest work with a view to informing you respecting the international events which have occurred during the past three years and are still going on in the Philippines, in order that you may be fully acquainted with the facts and be thereby placed in a position to pronounce judgment upon the issue and be satisfied and assured of the Justice which forms the basis and is in fact the foundation of our Cause. I place the simple truth respectfully before and dedicate it to you as an act of homage and as testimony of my admiration for and recognition of the wide knowledge, the brilliant achievements and the great power of other nations, whom I salute, in the name the Philippine nation, with every effusion of my soul. The Author. Page 1 The Revolution of 1896 Spain maintained control of the Philippine Islands for more than three centuries and a half, during which period the tyranny, misconduct and abuses of the Friars and the Civil and Military Administration exhausted the patience of the natives and caused them to make a desperate effort to shake off the unbearable galling yoke on the 26th and 31st August, 1896, then commencing the revolution in the provinces of Manila and Cavite. On these memorable days the people of Balintawak, Santa Mesa, Kalookan, Kawit, Noveleta and San Francisco de Malabon rose against the Spaniards and proclaimed the Independence of the Philippines, and in the course of the next five days these uprisings were followed by the inhabitants of the other towns in Cavite province joining in the revolt against the Spanish Government although there was no previous arrangement looking to a general revolt. The latter were undoubtedly moved to action by the noble example of the former.Page 2 With regard to the rising in the province of Cavite it should be stated that although a call to arms bearing the signatures of Don Augustin Rieta, Don Candido Firona and myself, who were Lieutenants of the Revolutionary Forces, was circulated there was no certainty about the orders being obeyed, or even received by the people, for it happened that one copy of the orders fell into the hands of a Spaniard named Don Fernando Parga, Military Governor of the province, who at that time was exercising the functions of Civil Governor, who promptly reported its contents to the Captain-General of the Philippines, Don Ramon Blanco y Erenas. The latter at once issued orders for the Spanish troops to attack the revolutionary forces. It would appear beyond doubt that One whom eye of man hath not seen in his wisdom and mercy ordained that the emancipation of the oppressed people of the Philippines should be undertaken at this time, for otherwise it is inexplicable how men armed only with sticks andgulok1 wholly unorganized and undisciplined, could defeat the Spanish Regulars in severe engagements at Bakoor, Imus and Noveleta and, in addition to making many of them prisoners, captured a large quantity of arms and ammunition. It was owing to this astonishing success of the revolutionary troops that General Blanco quickly concluded to endeavour, to maintain Spanish control by the adoption of a Page 3conciliatory policy under the pretext that thereby he could quel the rebellion, his first act being a declaration to the effect that it was not the purpose of his Government to oppress the people and he had no desire “to slaughter the Filipinos.”. The Government of Madrid disapproved of General Blanco's new policy and speedily appointed Lieutenant-General Don Camilo Polavieja to supersede him, and despatched forthwith a large number of Regulars to the Philippines. General Polavieja advanced against the revolutionary forces with 16,000 men armed with Mausers, and one field battery. He had scarcely reconquered half of Cavite province when he resigned, owing to bad health. That was in April, 1897. Polavieja was succeeded by the veteran General Don Fernando Primo de Rivera, who had seen much active service. As soon as Rivera had taken over command of the Forces he personally led his army in the assault upon and pursuit of the revolutionary forces, and so firmly, as well as humanely, was the campaign conducted that he soon reconquered the whole of Cavite province and drove the insurgents into the mountains. Then I established my headquarters in the wild and unexplored mountain fastness of Biak-na-bató, where I formed the Republican Government of the Philippines at the end of May, 1897.Page 4 1 A kind of sword—Translator. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató Don Pedro Alejandro Paterno (who was appointed by the Spanish Governor-General sole mediator in the discussion of the terms of peace) visited Biak-na-bató several times to negotiate terms of … [Read more...]

Katipunero: Simeón Ola y Arboleda -Philippine Revolution Hero and the last General to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War

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  The Paternal Great Grandfather of Mandirigma.orgs' Guro Dino Flores, Segundo Flores was a Katipunero serving under the General Simeón Ola y Arboleda in the Bicol Region. Major Simeón Ola y Arboleda was under General Vito Belarmino, the Zone Commander of the Revolutionary Forces in the Bicol Region. ---------- Simeón Ola y Arboleda Municipal President of Albay, In office 1904–1908 Born: 2 September 1865 Guinobatan, Albay, Philippines Died : 14 February 1952 (aged 86) Guinobatan, Albay, Philippines Organization: Katipunan Simeón Ola y Arboleda (September 2, 1865 – February 14, 1952) was a hero of the Philippine Revolution and the last general to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War. Biography Simeon Ola was born on September 2, 1865 to Vicente Ola and Apolonia Arboleda, who were ordinary citizens with little money. He was enrolled in Holy Rosary Minor Seminary and studied Philosophy, but didn't finish the course. He joined the local branch of the Katipunan in his hometown province of Albay and later became the leader. With the help of a parish priest he was able to acquire arms to support his men. He was promoted to the rank of captain after the battle of Camalig in Albay, 1898 and again promoted to the rank of major after a daring ambush mission that led to the capture of three Americans. He was also the leader of the subsequent valiant attacks on Albay towns namely, Oas, Ligao and Jovellar. He later surrendered on the condition that his men would be granted amnesty. He was put on trial and was proven guilty of sedition and was sentenced to thirty years in prison. In 1904, he was given a pardon and returned to his place of birth and became the municipal president. The regional police command in Legazpi City was name after him. SIMEON A. OLA (1865-1952) Revolutionist In Guinobatan, Albay hailed Simeon Ola, the man who would lead the Bicolanos fight for their freedom. He was born on September 2, 1865 to Vicente Ola and Apolonia Arboleda. Ola was highly regarded in Guinobatan, being the teniente de cuadrillos and a trusted confidant of Father Carlos Cabido, the parish priest of his town. These positions helped him carry out his revolutionary works – recruiting men and acquiring firearms for the revolutionary army. He connived with the jail warden in his town, Sergeant Loame, to free about 93 prisoners. The prisoners soon joined his army. In April 1898, he fought in the battle of Camalig. General Vito Belarmino, the Zone Commander of the Revolutionary Forces in the Bicol Region, designated him the rank of a Captain. Fully committed to the cause of the revolution, he also raised funds amounting to P42, 000.00, which he turned over to General Mariano Trias, Secretary of Finance of the Revolutionary Government. On January 23, 1900, he was promoted Major after he successfully effected an ambush and captured three American soldiers: Dubose, Fred Hunter and Russel. In February that same year, his troops fought against the Americans in Arimbay, Legaspi. His cousin Jose Arboleda perished in the bloody battle. American soldiers’ mighty firepower and combat training did not dampen his spirit; he continued to fight so that his men were encouraged and more men joined his army. With the army of Colonel Engracio Orence, he fought valiantly in the battle of Binogsacan in Guinobatan, Albay. His army rested for over a month in July 1901 when he accompanied General Belarmino to Manila. He resumed his campaign in August by raiding the town of Oas, Albay. On August 12, 1902, he ambushed the American detachment at Macabugos, Ligao. Ola became a marked man to the Americans. Although his troops were easily repulsed during battles, the Americans took him seriously. From March to October 1903, the Americans set up the reconcentration system as a means to stop Ola’s activities. Because of the damage it caused even to the innocent civilians, they turned into negotiations. They sent Ramon Santos and Major Jesse S. Garwood of the Constabulary as emissaries to negotiate for his surrender, which he politely refused. Instead, he carried on his battle. On July 15, 1903, he ambushed the 31st Philippine Scout Garrison under the command of Sergeant Nicolas Napoli in Joveliar, Albay. The persistent effort of the peace panel and his battle weary men made Ola realized that he could never win the war. He became open to the agreement set by Colonel Harry H. Bandholtz, the Assistant Commander of the Constabulary in Lucena, Tayabas, for his surrender. The agreement included general amnesty, fair treatment and justice to his comrades in arms. On September 25, 1903 the negotiating panel composed of Ramon Santos, Eligio Arboleda, Epifanio Orozco, Frank L. Pyle, John Paegelow, J.B. Allison and Joseph Rogers went to his camp in Malagnaton, Mapaco, Guinobatan. Eventually, Ola surrendered to Governor Bette and Colonel … [Read more...]

Sino pumatay kay Antonio Luna? – Philippine TV Show Crime Klasik – Episode #301 – June 8, 2012

General Antonio Luna

Sino pumatay kay Antonio Luna? - Philippine TV Show Crime Klasik - Episode #301 - June 8, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvBeckZI9Jo     Isa sa pinakamatapang at pinakamatalinong Heneral na lumaban sa mananakop si General Antonio Luna. Pero hindi tulad ng ibang bayani, sa kamay raw ng kapwa Pilipino natapos ang kaniyang buhay. Paano nabago nito ang ating kasaysayan?   Was it Aguinaldo who had Antonio Luna killed? Go back in time and know the history of Antonio Luna here in Crime Klasik.   More on Crime Klasik: https://www.facebook.com/CrimeKlasik     … [Read more...]

Imprinting Andres Bonifacio: The Iconization from Portrait to Peso by The Malacañan Palace Library

Andres_Bonifacio_photo

Imprinting Andres Bonifacio: The Iconization from Portrait to Peso by The Malacañan Palace Library   The face of the Philippine revolution is evasive, just like the freedom that eluded the man known as its leader.   The only known photograph of Andres Bonifacio is housed in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. Some say that it was taken during his second wedding to Gregoria de Jesus in Katipunan ceremonial rites. It is dated 1896 from Chofre y Cia (precursor to today’s Cacho Hermanos printing firm), a prominent printing press and pioneer of lithographic printing in the country, based in Manila. The faded photograph, instead of being a precise representation of a specific historical figure, instead becomes a kind of Rorschach test, liable to conflicting impressions. Does the picture show the President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan as a bourgeois everyman with nondescript, almost forgettable features? Or does it portray a dour piercing glare perpetually frozen in time, revealing a determined leader deep in contemplation, whose mind is clouded with thoughts of waging an armed struggle against a colonial power? Perhaps a less subjective and more fruitful avenue for investigation is to compare and contrast this earliest documented image with those that have referred to it, or even paid a curious homage to it, by substantially altering his faded features. This undated image of Bonifacio offers the closest resemblance to the Chofre y Cia version. As attested to by National Scientist Teodoro A. Agoncillo and the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, it is the image that depicts the well-known attribution of Bonifacio being of sangley (or Chinese) descent. While nearly identical in composition with the original, this second image shows him with a refined–even weak–chin, almond-shaped eyes, a less defined brow, and even modified hair. The blurring of his features, perhaps the result of the image being timeworn, offers little room for interjection. In contrast, the next image dating from a February 8, 1897 issue of La Ilustración Española y Americana, a Spanish-American weekly publication, features a heavily altered representation of Bonifacio at odds with the earlier depiction from Chofre y Cia. This modification catered to the Castilian idea of racial superiority, and to the waning Spanish Empire’s shock–perhaps even awe?–over what they must have viewed at the time as indio impudence. Hence the Bonifacio in this engraving is given a more pronounced set of features–a more prominent, almost ruthless jawline, deep-set eyes, a heavy, furrowed brow and a proud yet incongruously vacant stare. Far from the unassuming demeanor previously evidenced, there is an aura of unshakable, even obstinate, determination surrounding the revolutionary leader who remained resolute until his last breath. Notice also that for the first (although it would not be the last) time, he is formally clad in what appears to be a three-piece suit with a white bowtie–hardly the dress one would expect, given his allegedly humble beginnings. Given its printing, this is arguably the first depiction of Bonifacio to be circulated en masse. The same image appeared in Ramon Reyes Lala’s The Philippine Islands, which was published in 1899 by an American publishing house for distribution in the Philippines. The records of both the Filipinas Heritage Library and the Lopez Museum reveal a third, separate image of Bonifacio which appears in the December 7, 1910 issue of El Renacimiento Filipino, a Filipino publication during the early years of the American occupation. El Renacimiento Filipino portrays an idealized Bonifacio, taking even greater liberties with the Chofre y Cia portrait. There is both gentrification and romanticization at work here. His receding hairline draws attention to his wide forehead–pointing to cultural assumptions of the time that a broad brow denotes a powerful intellect–and his full lips are almost pouting. His cheekbones are more prominent and his eyes are given a curious, lidded, dreamy, even feminine emphasis, imbuing him with an air of otherworldly reserve–he appears unruffled and somber, almost languid: more poet than firebrand. It is difficult to imagine him as the Bonifacio admired, even idolized, by his countrymen for stirring battle cries and bold military tactics. He is clothed in a similar fashion to the La Ilustración Española y Americana portrait: with a significant deviation that would leave a telltale mark on succeeded images derived from this one. Gone is the white tie (itself an artistic assumption when the original image merely hinted at the possibility of some sort of neckwear), and in its stead, there is a sober black cravat and even a corsage on the buttonhole of his coat. Here the transformation of photograph to engraving takes … [Read more...]

Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library

pinoy flag

Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library Aside from the Masonic influence on the Katipunan, the design of the Philippine flag has roots in the flag family to which it belongs—that of the last group of colonies that sought independence from the Spanish Empire at the close of the 19th century, a group to which the Philippines belongs. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office traces the origins of the Philippine flag’s design elements, which have been in use since General Emilio Aguinaldo first conceived them—the stars and stripes; the red, white, and blue; the masonic triangle; and the sun—and have endured since. Source: http://malacanang.gov.ph/3846-origin-of-the-symbols-of-our-national-flag/     … [Read more...]

Pre-Standardized Philippine Flag by Ambeth R. Ocampo

Philippine Revolution Sun

Before the Philippine flag was standardized into the form we know today, the sun had a human face and eight rays that differed depending on who made it. The sun in the flag also appeared as: seals, stamps, and logos on official communications. I'm not sure if this is a stamp for postage, revenue, or documentary tax. Ambeth R. Ocampo … [Read more...]

THE SIGLO DE ORO – The Golden Age of Spain in the fields of Military and Naval power, international politics, economy, arts, literature, and music. 15th – 17th Centuries.

The Siglo de Oro-mandirigma.org

THE SIGLO DE ORO The Siglo de Oro is the Golden Age of Spain in the fields of Military and Naval power, international politics, economy, arts, literature, and music. The actual length of Spain's golden age lasted for more than a hundred years, from 15th to the 17th Centuries. The above photo shows the areas of the world that at one time were territories of the Spanish Monarchy or Empire. The Spanish empire reached its greatest extent during the Siglo de Oro. … [Read more...]

Movie: Supremo (2012), Andres Bonifacio as husband, brother, soldier and hero

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http://youtu.be/oHQ34CKnkIM     About Andres Bonifacio's Biopic Description Andres Bonifacio as husband, brother, soldier and hero Release date August 2012 Genre Epic Drama Studio Alternative Vision Cinema and Strawdogs Studio Productions Plot outline Manila, year 1896. The cry for independence from the tyranny of Spain peals louder than ever. Andres Bonifacio, leader of the rebel movement the Katipunan, leads his men to war. Though ill-equipped and untried in the field of battle, the Katipuneros launch an offensive against a vastly superior Spanish military. What follows is a series of events that will test the nation's brave sons, and an aftermath that will separate the genuine patriots from mere participants. Starring Alfred Vargas, Mon Confiado, Nicco Manalo, Alex Vincent Medina, Edmon Romawac, Shielbert Manuel, Lehner Mendoza, Manu Respall, Jeff Fernandez, Banjo Romero, Alex Cabodil, Nica Naval and Hermie Concepcion Directed by Richard V. Somes Written By Jimmy Flores Produced by PM Vargas, Alfred Vargas, Riza Montelibano, Mai Montelibano and Ellen Ilagan   Supremo (2012) Full Trailer Director: Richard V. Somes Starring: Alfred Vargas Mon Confiado Hermie Concepcion Nicco Manalo Alex Vincent Medina Nica Naval Edmon Romawag Shielbert Manuel Lehner Mendoza Jeff Fernandez Banjo Romero Mano Respall Alex Cabodil Production Manager: Darryl De la Cruz Sound Engineer Jedd Chriss Dumaguina Musical Scorer: Von De Guzman Editors: Carlo Francisco Manatad + Joris Fernandez Director of Photography: Alex Espartero Production Designers: Erin John Martir + Adrian Torres Screenplay: Jimmy Flores Associate Producer: Ellen Ilagan + Maimai Montelibano Line Producer: Riza Montelibano Executive Producers: PM Vargas + Alfred Vargas   http://www.facebook.com/pages/Supremo/407515249292352     … [Read more...]

Justiniano Asuncion, “A Guardia de Vino: An Officer to Look After the Government Monopolies, Such as Arrack and Tobacco,” c 1841, New York Public Library.

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  Justiniano Asuncion, “A Guardia de Vino: An Officer to Look After the Government Monopolies, Such as Arrack and Tobacco,” c 1841, New York Public Library.   Courtesy of http://pupuplatter.tumblr.com … [Read more...]

Joseph Montano, “Moros-Moros au Théâtre d’Albay,” 1886.

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Joseph Montano, “Moros-Moros au Théâtre d’Albay,” 1886.   Courtesy of http://pupuplatter.tumblr.com … [Read more...]

BOOK: FOUNDERS OF FREEDOM, The History of the Three Philippine Constitutions (1971)

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Description: The book tells the history of struggle for freedom in the Philippines, from the first massive filipino alliance against Spain during the 16th century, to the Philippine Revolution, to the founding of the Philippine republic, and the succession of Presidents up to the time of President Marcos. Its a book that conditions citizens to the framing of the new Constitution in 1972. In the introduction reads: "Seventy-Three years ago, on 12 June 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Revolution, declared the independence of the Philippines at Kawit". Writers: Vicente Albano Pacis, Dr. Jose M. Aruego, Esteban De Ocampo, Carlos Quirino, Jose Luna Castro, Mauro Garcia, Isidro L. Retizos, D.H. Soriano Publisher: Elena Hollman Roces Foundation, Inc         … [Read more...]

BOOK: Memories of the Philippine Revolution Apolinario Mabini (1963)

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Memories of the Philippine Revolution  Apolinario Mabini (1963) Description: Apolinario Mabini's biographical work about the Philippine Revolution of 1896. Text in Spanish. Publisher: Bureau of Public Printing-Manila. 1963 Author: Apolinario Mabini Pages: 254 … [Read more...]

1609: The Spanish Conquest of Philippines Argensola, B. L. Lic. (1609)

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Author: Argensola, B. L. Lic. Title: Conquista de las Islas Malucas al Rey Felipe III. N.  Sr. Escrita por el capellán de la  Magestad de la Emperatriz y Retor de Villa hermosa. Date and publisher: Madrid. Ediciones de Alonso Martín. 1609. Description: First  edition of one of the first books to deal fully with the Spanish conquest of  the Moluccas, the Spice Islands, and of the Philippines, 1564--1572, under the conquistador Miguel López de  Legaspi. This famous book deals with those exploits, with the natural history  of these islands, the manners and customs of the natives and the voyages  through the Straits of Magellan; regarded by Hill as an 'essential work for the  history of Spanish and Portuguese exploration in the East Indies'. Argensolas´ narrative is noted for its  breadth of knowledge and over-all grasp of world politics. 'In his digressions  on people and places,' writes Lach (Asia in the making of Europe, III,  pp. 311-12), 'Argensola´s adds significantly to the stockpile of information on  Asia, especially on the Moluccas, Java, Sumatra, and Ceylon. His book also ties  together neatly the affairs of Europe with struggles in the overseas areas, for he sees the  spice trade in its worldwide ramifications and makes his reader acutely aware  of its immediate and potential interest for Japan and China.´ Binding: Modern  half-vellum. Size: 11 x 7.5   inches / 28,5 x 15 cm. An  unusually large copy (most copies have the title page trimmed). Number of pages: 10 + 407 pages. Conquista de las Islas Molucas (1609) [Rare McPar DS674 .L4 1609], written by Bartolomé Leonardo de Argensola, a Spanish historian and poet who took holy orders and was later appointed royal chaplain and historiographer of Aragon. This particular text was commissioned by the Council of the Indies to commemorate the Spanish recapture of the Moluccan Islands of Ternate and Tidore in 1606. It was very well received upon its initial publication, and continues to be an important source for research into Spanish and Portuguese exploration in the East Indies, the conquest of the Philippines, and the history of the spice trade, especially since Argensola consulted numerous primary sources in the archives of the Indies when writing this work. Our volume is bound in its original brown leather over paper boards, though the spine has been rebacked in brown leather gilt and the endpapers replaced. The text itself is very finely printed, with numerous ornamental head- and tail-pieces and woodcut initials, and an especially fine engraved title page. This page, pictured below, illustrates, within an elaborate architectural border, an allegory of the Spanish conquest of the Moluccas. The amazon queen “Maluca” is depicted seated astride a crocodile, wearing a feather headdress and holding a sword in her left hand while in her right she raises a horn of plenty filled with the fruits of her lands. Her gaze is directed upward to where a rainbow is shown containing the royal crest of Spain, shimmering in the light, signifying, with the word simul, the fact that the sun never sets on the Spanish empire. In the background is an active volcano, of which there are several on these islands, and seashells are strewn before her feet. … [Read more...]

BOOK: THE JESUITS IN THE PHILIPPINES 1581-1768 by H.V. de la Costa, S.J. (1951)

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    Description: "This fascinating story of cross and sword, laid in an extraordinary setting, describes the role of the Jesuits in the Philippines. Their history- as missionaries, educators, and colonizers - is so entwined with that of the Islands that one cannot be discussed without the other. Accordingly, documents in the Roman, Spanish and Philippines archives of the Prder, as well as those of the general colonial achives at Madrid and Seville, have been colorfully employed to present a wide segment of the general history of the Spanish empire in the PHilippines and the Far East." -- first paragraph of the dust jacket text.   The book contains maps and illustrations Author: H. de la Costa, S.J. Pages: 702           … [Read more...]

Rajah Sulaiman III, Last Muslim King of Manila (1558 – 1575) – Written in Tagalog by Jose N. Sevilla and Tolentino in the early 1920′s

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Rajah Suliman, Last Muslim King of Manila Rajah Sulaiman III (1558 - 1575) was the last native Muslim king of Manila, now the site of the capital of the Philippines, Manila. He was one of three chieftains, along with Rajah Rajah Lakandula and Adults, to have played a significant role in the Spanish conquests of the kingdoms of the Manila Bay-Pasig River area, first by Martín de Goiti, and Juan de Salcedo in 1570; and later by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1571 The following biography of Rajah Soliman was written in Tagalog by Jose N. Sevilla and Tolentino in the early 1920s:     TALAMBUHAY NI RAHA SOLIMAN Bago nagíng̃ Rahá si Solimán, ay nagíng̃ katulong̃ muna sa pang̃ang̃asiwà ng̃ mg̃a súliranin dito sa Maynilà, ni Raháng̃ Matandâ. Si Lakán Dulà na nanánahanan sa Tundó ay siyá niyáng̃ kasama. Itó ay nang̃ kapanáhunan ni Raháng̃ Matandâ nang̃ taóng̃ 1570. Noón ay isáng̃ pulutóng̃ nang̃ mg̃a sasakyáng̃ kastilà na pinamumunuan ni Martin de Goití at Juan de Salcedo ang̃ dumaong̃ sa luók ng̃ Maynilà. Niyaóng̃ unang̃ datíng̃ dito niná Goití ay dî sila nakalunsád pagdaka. Ang̃ Maynilà, ay may matitibay na mg̃a muóg at sila'y pinaputukán at sinagupà. Nabalitaan niláng isá sa mg̃a makapang̃yarihan doón ay si Solimán, kaya't nagpadalá sina Goití rito ng̃ sugò na nagsásaysáy na silá'y dî naparito upáng̃ makidigmâ kundî upáng̃ makipagkásundô, at ang̃ ganitó'y tinugón sa pamamagitan ng̃ sugò, na ang̃ Hari sa Maynilà ay nagnanasà ng̃ makipagkaibigan sa mg̃a kastilà. Pagtang̃gáp ni Goití ng̃ paklí ni Solimán ay nasók siyá at ang̃ kanyáng̃ mg̃a tao sa ilog ng̃ Pasig at silá'y lumunsád sa isáng̃ baybáy na itinakdâ ng̃ Harì. Sinalubong̃ silá ni Raháng Matandâ at nakipagkamáy sa kanilá, pagkaliban ng̃ iláng̃ sandali ay dumatíng si Rahá Solimán at nakipágkamáy din ng̃uni't nagpasubalì ng̃ gayari: «Kamí ay nagnánasang̃ makipagkaibigan sa mg̃a kastilà samantalang̃ silá'y mabuti sa amin; ng̃uni't mahíhirapan silá ng̃ gaya ng̃ hirap na tiniís na ng̃ ibá, kailán ma't nasain niláng̃ kami'y alisán ng̃ puri». Pagkaraán ng̃ iláng̃ araw si Goití ay nagkulang̃ sa pagkakáibigan sa pagpapaputók ng̃ kaniláng̃ kanyón, at si Rahá Solimán ay napilitang̃ magbago ng̃ kilos. Ipinawasák nitó ang̃ mg̃a sasakyán nina Goití at ipinapuksâ ang̃ kanyáng̃ mg̃a kawal. Nápakabuti ang̃ pagtatang̃gól sa mg̃a kutà at dî nagawâ nang̃ mg̃a kastilà ang̃ makapasok agád, ng̃uni't nang̃ mang̃asalantà ang̃ mg̃a tao ni Solimán at maubos na ang̃ mg̃a punlô ay napipilan din. At nang̃ makuha ng̃ mg̃a kastilà ang̃ Maynilà ay sinalakay ang̃ bahay ni Solimán at dito'y nátagpuán nilá ang̃ isáng̃ mainam na gusali, maiinam na kasang̃kapang̃ sigay, mg̃a damit na mariring̃al na nagkakahalagá ng̃ may 23.000 piso. Hindî nagtaksíl kailán man si Solimán, gaya ng̃ ipinararatang̃ sa kanyá ng̃ mg̃a kastilà. Siyá'y tumupád lamáng̃ sa kanyáng̃ dakilang̃ katung̃kulan na makibaka sa sino mang̃ magnánasang̃ sumirà ng̃ kanyáng̃ kapuriháng̃ pagkaharì, at yáyamang̃ ang̃ mg̃a kastilà ay siyáng̃ nagpasimulâ ng̃ pagbabaka, ay siyá ay nagtang̃gól lamang̃ at natalo, ng̃uni't hindî kailán man nagtaksíl. Ang̃ kanyáng̃ pagibig sa sariling̃ Lupà ay nagudyók sa kanyáng̃ makibaka at siyá ay nakibaka dahil doón. Kung̃ saán mákikitang̃ ang pagguhò ng̃ kaharian ni Solimàn ay utang̃ sa kagahaman ng̃ isáng̃ lahing̃ mang̃aalipin; sa isáng̃ pámahalaáng̃ pinagágaláw ng̃ lakás ng̃ lakás at di ng̃ lakás ng̃ katuwiran. Kawawang̃ bayang̃ maliliít na linúlupig at ginágahasà ng̃ malalakíng bansâ. Ang̃ daigdíg ay patung̃o sa pagunlád, at buhat niyaóng̃ 1914 na gahasain ang̃ Belhika, ang malalakíng̃ Bansâ ay nagsasapì at ipinagtang̃gól ang̃ katwiran ng̃ maliliít na bayan. Panibagong̃ kilos sa daigdíg na bung̃a ng̃ mayamang̃ diwà ng̃ dakilang̃ Wilson sa kaamerikahan.   … [Read more...]

Apolinario ‘Lumpo’ Mabini y Maranan – Conscience of the Philippine Revolution (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903)

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Apolinario Mabini Hero of the Philippine Revolution Conscience  of the Philippine Revolution the Sublime Paralytic key adviser of Emilio Aguinaldo proposed the first constitution of the Philippine Republic born July 22, 1864 Barrio Talaga, Tanawan Batangas to Inocencio Mabini, Dionisia Maranan died May 13, 1903 It was immediately before the proclamation of independence that a young man was brought before Aguinaldo as his adviser. He was Apolinario Mabini. Born of very poor parents, Inocencio Mabini and Dionisia Maranan, in Talaga, Tanawan, Batangas. Mabini studied in a school in Tanawan, then conducted by a certain Simplicio Avelino. Much later, he transferred to a school conducted by the famous pedagogue, Father Valerio Malabanan. He continued his studies at the San Juan de Letran and at the University of Sto. Tomas where he received his law degree in 1894. His dream to defend the poor led him to forsake the priesthood, which his mother wanted him to take. Early in 1896, he contracted an illness, probably infantile paralysis, that led to the paralysis of his lower limbs. When the revolution broke out the same year, the Spanish authorities, suspecting that he was somehow involved in the disturbance, arrested him. The fact, however, that he could not move his lower limbs showed the Spaniards that they had made a mistake. He was released and sent to the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Mabini, it must be noted, was not entirely free from nationalistic association, for he was a member of Rizal's La Liga Filipina and worked secretly for the introduction of reforms in the administration of government. In 1898, while vacationing in Los Baños, Aguinaldo sent for him. It took hundreds of men taking turns at carrying the hammock he was in to bring Mabini to Kawit. Aguinaldo, upon seeing Mabini's physical condition, thought that he must have made a mistake in calling for him to help him in his work. What could a man in such a condition do to help him? But when Mabini spoke, Aguinaldo's doubts vanished. There was firmness in the sick man's voice, and Aguinaldo decided to make him his trusted adviser. From then on, it was Mabini who stood behind Aguinaldo. Envious enemies called him the "Dark Chamber of the President", but his admirers called him the "Brains of the Revolution". History of the Filipino People. Teodoro A. Agoncillo   --- Apolinario Mabini Born of a poor family, Apolinario Mabini was always studious. He was always sad and silent and liked to sit alone to meditate. Mabini studied at San Juan de Letran where he got his Bachelor of Arts degree and Professor of Latin. He also finished Law. He was a spokesman of the Congress, and a notary public. In early 1896, he contracted a severe fever which paralyzed him for the rest of his life. He was later called the Sublime Paralytic. Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898, when he became the chief adviser of Gen. Aguinaldo during the revolution. He drafted decrees and proposed a constitution for the Philippine Republic. He made the plans for the revolutionary government. In 1899, he was captured by the Americans but was later set free. In 1901, he was exiled to Guam but returned to the Philippines in 1903 after agreeing to take an oath of allegiance to the US. He took his oath on February 26, 1903 before the Collector of Customs. On May 13, 1903, he died of cholera in Manila. Excerpts from Talambuhay ng mga Bayani by Rene Alba   --- Apolinario 'Lumpo' Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) Apolinario 'Lumpo' Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899. In Philippine history texts, he is often referred to as "the Sublime Paralytic", and as "the Brains of the Revolution." To his enemies and detractors, he is referred to as the "Dark Chamber of the President."   Early life of Apolinario Mabini Mabini was born on July 23, 1864 in Barangay Talaga in Tanauan, Batangas. He was the second of eight children of Dionisia Maranan, a vendor in the Tanauan market, and Inocencio Mabini, an unlettered peasant. Mabini began informal studies under his maternal grandfather, who was the village teacher. Because he demonstrated uncommon intelligence, he was transferred to a regular school owned by Simplicio Avelino, where he worked as a houseboy, and also took odd jobs from a local tailor - all in exchange for free board and lodging. He later transferred to a school conducted by the Fray Valerio Malabanan, whose fame as an educator merited a mention in José Rizal's novel El Filibusterismo. In 1881 Mabini received a scholarship to go to the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila. An anecdote about his stay there says that a professor there decided to pick on him because his shabby … [Read more...]

Katipunero: Emilio Jacinto. The “Brains of the Katipunan.” (15 December 1875 – 16 April 1899).

  Katipunero: Emilio Jacinto. Revolutionary and writer. Emilio Jacinto y Dizon was considered as one of the greatest military genius during his time. He was very close to Andres Bonifacio. Like Bonifacio, Emilio also comes from a poor family. He was born in Trozo, Manila on December 15,1875. His parents were Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. Despite being orphaned, he managed to send himself to Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He was also able to study law at the University of Santo Tomas although he was not able to finish it because his Spanish classmates often abused him. Emilio was only 19 when he joined the Katipunan. He was known as the brains of the Katipunan when it comes to military matters. His book entitled Kartilya was the one used by the Katipuneros as their guide in fighting the Spanish colonizers. It contained the constitution and by-laws ofthe Katipunan. Reading books was one of Emilio's greatest passions. One of his favorite books was the one about the French Revolution. He also has in his collection a book on how to make gunpowder and dynamite. He also learned quite a few things about the art of war, military strategies and ways of making weapons of war. --- Emilio Jacinto – Utak ng Katipunan Si Emilio Jacinto ay anak nila Mariano Jacinto at Josefa Dizon. Namatay agad ang kanyang ama ilang sandali lamang matapos na siya ay isilang na nagtulak sa kanyang ina na ipaampon si Emilio sa kanyang tiyuhin na si Don Jose Dizon upang magkaroon ng magandang buhay. Si Emilio ay bihasa sa pagsasalita ng Tagalog at Kastila pero mas gusto niya ang Kastila. Siya ay nag-aral sa Kolehiyo ng San Juan de Letran at nang maglaon ay lumipat sa Pamantasan ng Sto. Tomas para mag-aral ng batas. Hindi niya natapos ang kurso at sa edad na 20 ay sumapi siya sa isang sikretong samahan na ang pangalan ay Katipunan. Nang mamatay si Bonifacio, ipinagpatuloy ni Jacinto ang paglaban sa mga Kastila bagamat hindi siya sumali sa puwersa ni Aguinaldo. Namatay si Emilio Jacinto sa sakit na malaria noong Abril 16, 1899 sa Majayjay, Laguna sa edad na 23. Dr. Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar inspired him to be a good writer during his time. He used Dimes Haw as his pen name. He also wrote A la Patria, which he based from Dr. Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios. He was seriously injured in one bloody encounter that resulted to his death on April 16,1899 in Majayjay, Laguna at a young age of 24.   Known as the "Brains of the Katipunan", Emilio Jacinto was born in Trozo, Tondo, Manila, on Dec 15,1875. He was the son of Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. He was fluent in both Spanish and Tagalog, but he spoke more in Spanish. He studied in the Universidad de Santo Tomas, but did not finish college and at 20 joined the Katipunan. Because he was very brilliant, he became the advisor on fiscal matters and secretary to Andres Bonifacio. He also edited and wrote for the Katipunan newspaper "Kalayaan"--Freedom in Tagalog. He wrote in the newspaper under the pen name Dimasilaw, and in the Katipunan he was called Pingkian. Emilio Jacinto was the author of the Kartilya ng Katipunan. After Andres Bonifacio's death, he continued fighting the Spaniards.     The appointment paper of Emilio Jacinto as commander-in-chief of the revolutionary forces north of Manila, signed by Andres Bonifacio as “Pangulo ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan.” The letterhead cites Bonifacio as having founded the Katipunan and initiated the revolution. (ENE Collection)   … [Read more...]

The Two Conquests By Angel Postigo

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Guro Dino of the Mandirigma Research Organization met Professor Angel Postigo and his father on one of his many business trips to Los Angeles from Mexico. Professor Postigo is a person with a very impressive resume in the warrior arts and journalism, among other things, having written for Artes Marciales, Katana, Kung Fu Magazine, Legitima Defensa and National Sports Directory of Mexico. They found that they both have a passion for history and its relationship to the warrior arts. Some of the discussions they had concerned the connections between the Philippines and Mexico for hundreds of years. Professor Postigo felt that mandirigma.org would be an excellent venue to present his articles of this often overlooked relationship between the Philippines and Mexico in history. Quoting Professor Postigo, "The reason why I am interested in working with "mandirigma.org" is to showcase my work as a writer interested in disseminating and spreading the culture of the Martial Arts of the Philippines, work that I have done in several Mexican magazines." Friday, October 12th, 2007 The Two Conquests By Angel Postigo Suddenly, the ascent they had begun at the beach, finally ended. Thousands of miles behind, their guides had led them to cross between those two volcanoes, the Popocatepetl and the Iztacihuatl. Standing in the snow, those iron men and their heraldic horses had that spectacle at their feet: beyond this wooded spot of splendid beauty, far beyond, into those mountains, a wide green valley was extended, and in the center the lakes shined like silver, and above the islands and the banks, those citadels with plazas and wide roads, the high roofs of its temples upon splendid hand-painted pyramids, and the woods and great fields full of exotic plants that enlightened those magic days of autumn. For the first time, western men looked at that wonderful landscape, as if painted on the evening air, and their eyes glowed as they contemplated the plain and remembered the gold and sacred feathered presents they had been offered as a plead to retire, to stay away. Cortes and his soldiers had started the advance to that plain, to Tenochtitlan, and the battles were about to begin. The great lord of the empire, Moctezuma II, intelligent and educated man, though deeply superstitious as most of his people, knew that his kingdom had come to its end. The news had spread as a desperate scream: Quetzalcoatl has returned, the Serpent God that promised to return in the year one, Acatl (1519), the prophecies are fulfilled now, the white-skinned bearded God has returned. Moctezuma knows a battle against a God is impossible, he has to have the help of other gods in order to save his nation. Being Cortes an extremely skillful politician and warrior, he perceives the rivalries between the different towns, and above all, the exacerbated hate against the Mexicas and their Aztec empire. Cortes returned to Tenochtitlan, not before suffering a defeat known as the Sad Night, when fallen and surrounded he was spared as many soldiers thanks to the tradition of not killing the enemy, just defeating them to take some prisoners for the ritual sacrifices. According to the number of prisoners, those warriors, Eagle men and Jaguar men, ascended in their military ranges. They were true conquerors who went further their frontiers of Guatemala, but their conquest had seeded rancor against the Aztec empire. Their armies were the best armed and trained. They had a regular troop, Yaoquizquel, and a lower but considerable number of noble warriors, Pipiltin, who belonged to a society known as the Eagle men, Quauhtin, and Jaguar men, Ocelomeh. Their elegant clothing had the skins of those felines and the feathers of those sacred birds. They were the sons of nobles who went to the Calmecac to receive military and cultural education, they learned astronomy, rhetoric, poetry, but above all, religion, and their status was well established, and how they could ascent according to their bravery, but above all, to the number of prisoners caught in battle. The Tlamani were the ones in charged of guarding the prisoners. This noble warriors, elegantly dressed, had as their main weapons the Macuahuitl, a kind of long club with sharp obsidian points, a round shield made of leather named Chimalli, an arc known as Tlauitolli, and a throwing spear, Atlatl. As he walks through many different spots of this empire, Cortes realizes the situation. In some places he has battles, but in others he comes to agreements easily, accomplishing an alliance in the first year of his arrival, and after establishing the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz. One of the alliances was with the Zapoteca people, and afterwards, with others oppressed by the Aztec empire, the Texcocanos, the Huejotzincas and the Totonacas. Cortes starts his first march towards Mexico, Tenochtitlan, on August 16th, 1519, towards the heart of the empire. He has only 400 Spanish soldiers, 15 horses, 3 canons, … [Read more...]

Pirate Limahong Invades the Philippines, 1574

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Limahong Limahong, Lim Hong or also called Lin Feng (simplified Chinese: 林风; traditional Chinese: 林風; pinyin: Lín Fēng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lîm-Hong) was a notorious Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574. He built up a reputation for his constant raids to ports in Guangdong, Fujian and southern China. He is noted to have twice attempted, and failed, to overthrow the Spanish city of Manila in 1574. Birth and origins Born Dim Mhon to a parents with questionable morals in the city of Tru Cheo (Teochew) in the province of Cuy Tan (called Catim by the Portuguese during the middle of the 16th century). Known to be called Limahong. Exposed to vices, he resorted to criminal activities, including robbery, at an early age. He met and became a protege of an old pirate, Tial-lao. When Tial-lao died, Lim became his heir, inheriting the old pirate's fleet and around 2,000 pirates. His activities and attacks on ports and ships throughout southern China increased and a warrant was issued by the authorities to capture him alive and send him to the city of Tay Bin. He was married to Nataracy. He shifted his activities to piracy on the high seas and out of reach of China's power. He was able to accumulate up to 40 ships, whereupon he once again raided cities and ports in southern China. Limahong attacked a city occupied by Vinh To Quiam, another pirate, but Vinh was able to escape along with 5 of Limahong's ships. However, Limahong was able to capture 55 of Vinh's fleet and thus increased his own to 95 ships. He was now a veritable king of the high seas of southern China. In late 1573, he gathered an army of 3,000 Chinese warriors, renegades and vagabonds and fled to the island of Luzon. There, he and his band of outlaws sought refuge, established their own kingdom and waged war with the Spaniards. By this time, a force of 40,000 soldiers and 135 ships was sent by the Chinese to kill and capture Limahong. Limahong and his troops first arrived in Ilocos Sur in early 1574 where they quarrelled with the Spanish commander, Juan de Salcedo. After a brief struggle with the Spanish army, his troops were driven away from the city. The pirates then chanced upon merchant ships from Manila doing trade with the Chinese, and learned from 2 captured ships that Manila was a new and relatively unprotected Spanish settlement. From this information and the knowledge that China had a no-war policy with its neighbors during that time, he decided to capture Manila and establish himself as ruler of his would-be kingdom and stronghold. Limahong In Parañaque (Don Galo) It was November 29, 1574. The inhabitants of the town of Parañaque, a royal encomienda, was under heavy attack from the forces of the notorious Chinese pirate, Limahong, who were on their way to Intramuros, the seat of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Folk accounts have it that the inhabitants were at first disorganized, until a man from a barrio, by the name of Galo, came forward and took command. Under his able leadership, and with the arrival of Spanish forces led by Captain Juan de Salcedo from Ilocos, Limahong was repulsed and the occupation of the town was prevented. The stiff resistance of the barrio residents shocked the Chinese pirate, who thought that capturing Manila would be easy. What Limahong did not expect was that the defenders of the community, that would later be known as Dongalo, dispite being ill-equipped, would fight to the end, so much so that the sea in front of the barrio turned red with their blood. The battle became known as the "Red Sea Incident" The Paraqueños not only saved their town, but they contributed decisively to Limahong's abandoning his plans to conquer the area. In appreciation for Galo's leadership and heroic deeds, the Spanish authorities granted him the title of "Don". The barrio later on was named after him. Thus, Don Galo or Dongalo. Limahong In Pangasinan Foiled at Manila to establish a kingdom of his own, Limahong set sail for the Lingayen Gulf, to settle in Pangasinan province. As a rich place and far enough from the reach of the Spaniards and the Chinese emperor, Limahong resolved to stay here and to make himself master of the region. Near the mouth of the Agno River about four miles from the sea he built a fort consisting of an outer palisade of palm logs, and an inner enclosure of palm planks which sheltered his palace. He also built pagodas and dwelling places preparatory for permanent settlement. Limahong announced to the people that he had conquered the Spaniards and that he had come to rule over them as their king. They were commanded to pay tributes to him. Thereupon, great terror and fright filled all the neighboring villages, and all of them, with no exception, received Limahong as king, and they obeyed him and paid him tributes. To make matters worse for the natives, he seized their principal chiefs and held them as … [Read more...]

Katipunan General Gregorio del Pilar, (1875-1899) – One of the youngest Generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces

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Gregorio del Pilar November 14, 1875(1875-11-14) – December 2, 1899(1899-12-02) (aged 24) Nickname:"Goyong", "Boy General" Place of birth: Bulacan, Bulacan, Philippines Place of death: Tirad Pass, Ilocos Sur, Philippines Allegiance:  First Philippine Republic Service/Branch: Philippine Revolutionary Army Battles/Wars: Philippine Revolution, Philippine-American War Battle of Quingua, Battle of Tirad Pass Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio (November 14, 1875—December 2, 1899) was one of the youngest generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He is most known for his role and death at the Battle of Tirad Pass. Because of his youth, he was called the "Boy General." Early life and education Born on November 14, 1875 to Fernando H. del Pilar and Felipa Sempio of Bulacan, Bulacan, del Pilar was the nephew of propagandist Marcelo H. del Pilar and Toribio H. del Pilar, who was exiled to Guam for his involvement in the 1872 Cavite Mutiny. "Goryo", as he was casually known, studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, where he received his Bachelor’s degree in 1896, at the age of 20. When the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule broke out in August under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio, del Pilar joined the insurgency. He distinguished himself as a field commander while fighting Spanish garrisons in Bulacan. Military career He later joined General Emilio Aguinaldo, who had gained control of the movement, in Hong Kong after the truce at Biak-na-Bato. During the Spanish American War, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines and established the government of the First Philippine Republic. He appointed del Pilar section leader of the revolutionary forces in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija. On June 1, del Pilar landed in Bulacan with rifles purchased in Hong Kong, quickly laying siege on the Spanish forces in the province. When the Spaniards surrendered to del Pilar, he brought his men to Caloocan, Manila to support the other troops battling the Spaniards there. When the Philippine-American War broke-out on February 1899, del Pilar led his troops to a short victory over Major Franklin Bell in the first phase of the Battle of Quingua on April 23, 1899, in which his forces repelled a cavalry charge and killed the highly respected Colonel John M. Stotsenburg,[1] after whom Clark Air Base was originally named (Fort Stotsenburg).[2] Death Gregorio del Pilar circa 1899 Main article: Battle of Tirad Pass On December 2, 1899, del Pilar led 60 Filipino soldiers of Aguinaldo's rear guard in the Battle of Tirad Pass against the "Texas Regiment", the 33rd Infantry Regiment of the United States led by Peyton C. March. A delaying action to cover Aguinaldo's retreat, the five-hour standoff resulted in Del Pilar's death due to a shot to the neck (at the height or end of the fighting, depending on eyewitness accounts). Del Pilar's body was later despoiled and looted by the victorious American soldiers. Del Pilar's body lay unburied for days, exposed to the elements. While retracing the trail, an American officer, Lt. Dennis P. Quinlan, gave the body a traditional U.S. military burial. Upon del Pilar's tombstone, Quinlan inscribed, "An Officer and a Gentleman". In 1930, del Pilar's body was exhumed and was identified by the gold tooth and braces he had installed while in exile in Hong Kong. Documentary His life was shown in the Philippine TV news show Case Unclosed as its 13th episode. Memorials * Fort Del Pilar, home of the Philippine Military Academy in Baguio, is named after him. * In 1944, the Japanese-sponsored Philippine republic of President Jose P. Laurel issued the Tirad Pass Medal commemorating the battle and del Pilar's sacrifice. A bust of General del Pilar occupies the center of the obverse (front) side of the medal. The Tirad Pass Medal was the only award issued to recognize service to the Laurel government during the Japanese occupation. * In 1955, the municipality of Concepcion in Ilocos Sur was renamed in his honor. * In 1995, his life was featured in the movie "Tirad Pass: The Last Stand of General Gregorio del Pilar" starring Romnick Sarmienta. From Wikipedia … [Read more...]

Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot? by Paul Flores

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Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot? by Paul Flores © 1996 by Paul Flores and PHGLA All rights reserved Contrary to popular belief, Philippine resistance to American rule did not end with the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901. There were numerous resistance forces fighting for Philippine independence until the year 1910. One of these forces was led by Macario Sakay who established the Tagalog Republic. Born in 1870 in Tondo, Macario Sakay had a working-class background. He started out as an apprentice in a calesa manufacturing shop. He was also a tailor, a barber, and an actor in comedias and moro-moros. His participation in Tagalog dramas exposed him to the world of love, courage, and discipline. In 1894, Sakay joined the Dapitan, Manila branch of the Katipunan. Due to his exemplary work, he became head of the branch. His nightly activities as an actor in comedias camouflaged his involvement with the Katipunan. Sakay assisted in the operation of the Katipunan press. During the early days of the Katipunan, Sakay worked with Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto. He fought side by side with Bonifacio in the hills of Morong (now Rizal) Province. During the initial stages of the Filipino-American war, Sakay was jailed for his seditious activities. He had been caught forming several Katipunan chapters and preaching its ideals from town to town. Republika ng Katagalugan Released in 1902 as the result of an amnesty, Sakay established with a group of other Katipuneros the Republika ng Katagalugan in the mountains of Southern Luzon. Sakay held the presidency and was also called "Generalisimo." Francisco Carreon was the vice-president and handled Sakay's correspondence. Julian Montalan was the overall supervisor for military operations. Cornelio Felizardo took charge of the northern part of Cavite (Pasay-Bacoor) while Lucio de Vega controlled the rest of the province. Aniceto Oruga operated in the lake towns of Batangas. Leon Villafuerte headed Bulacan while Benito Natividad patrolled Tanauan, Batangas. In April 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto stating that the Filipinos had a fundamental right to fight for Philippine independence. The American occupiers had already made support for independence, even through words, a crime. Sakay also declared that they were true revolutionaries and had their own constitution and an established government. They also had a flag. There were several other revolutionary manifestos written by the Tagalog Republic that would tend to disprove the U.S. government's claim that they were bandits. The Tagalog Republic's constitution was largely based on the early Katipunan creed of Bonifacio. For Sakay, the new Katipunan was simply a continuation of Bonifacio's revolutionary struggle for independence. Guerilla tactics In late 1904, Sakay and his men took military offensive against the enemy. They were successful in seizing ammunition and firearms in their raids in Cavite and Batangas. Disguised in Philippine Constabulary uniforms, they captured the U.S. military garrison in Parañaque and ran away with a large amount of revolvers, carbines, and ammunition. Sakay's men often employed these uniforms to confuse the enemy. Using guerrilla warfare, Sakay would look for a chance to use a large number of his men against a small band of the enemy. They usually attacked at night when most of the enemy was looking for relaxation. Sakay severely punished and often liquidated suspected collaborators. The Tagalog Republic enjoyed the support of the Filipino masses in the areas of Morong, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. Lower class people and those living in barrios contributed food, money, and other supplies to the movement. The people also helped Sakay's men evade military checkpoints. They collected information on the whereabouts of the American troops and passed them on. Muchachos working for the Americans stole ammunition and guns for the use of Sakay's men. Unable to suppress the growth of the Tagalog Republic, the Philippine Constabulary and the U.S. Army started to employ "hamletting" or reconcentration in areas where Sakay received strong assistance. The towns of Taal, Tanauan, Santo Tomas, and Nasugbu in the province of Batangas were reconcentrated. This cruel but effective counter-insurgency technique proved disastrous for the Filipino masses. The forced movement and reconcentration of a large number of people caused the outbreak of diseases such as cholera and dysentery. Food was scarce in the camps, resulting in numerous deaths. Meanwhile, search and destroy missions operated relentlessly in an attempt to suppress Sakay's forces. Muslims from Jolo were brought in to fight the guerrillas. Bloodhounds from California were imported to pursue them. The writ of habeas corpus was suspended in Cavite and Batangas to strengthen counter-insurgency efforts. With support cut off, the continuous American military offensive caused the Tagalog Republic to weaken. Fall of … [Read more...]

Manila Galleon Trade, 1565 to 1815

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Manila galleon The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons (Spanish: Galeones de Manila-Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines, and Acapulco, New Spain (present-day Mexico). The name changed reflecting the city that the ship was sailing from. Service was inaugurated in  1565 with the discovery of the ocean passage by Andrés de Urdaneta, and continued until 1815 when the Mexican War of Independence put a permanent stop to the galleon trade route. Though service was not inaugurated until almost 50 years after the death of Christopher Columbus, the Manila galleons constitute the fulfillment of Columbus' dream of sailing west to go east to bring the riches of the Indies to Spain, and the rest of Europe. Contents Discovery of the route The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade began when Andrés de Urdaneta, sailing in convoy under Miguel López de Legazpi, discovered a return route from Cebu City to Mexico in 1565. Attempting the return the fleet split up, some heading south. Urdaneta reasoned that the trade winds of the Pacific might move in a gyre as the Atlantic winds did. If in the Atlantic ships made a wide swing (the "volta") to the west to pick up winds that would bring them back from Madeira, then, he reasoned, by sailing far to the north before heading east he would pick up trade winds to bring him back to the west coast of North America. Though he sailed to 38 degrees North before turning east, his hunch paid off, and he hit the coast near Cape Mendocino, California, then followed the coast south to San Blas and later to Acapulco. Most of his crew died on the long initial voyage, for which they had not sufficiently provisioned. By the 18th century it was understood that a less northerly track was sufficient, but galleon navigators steered well clear of the forbidding and rugged fogbound California coast; According to historian William Lytle Schurz, "They generally made their landfall well down the coast, somewhere between Point Conception and Cape San Lucas...After all, these were preeminently merchant ships, and the business of exploration lay outside their field, though chance discoveries were welcomed". The first motivation for exploration of Alta California was to scout out possible way-stations for the seaworn Manila galleons on the last leg of their journey. Early proposals came to little, but in the later 18th century The Manila-Acapulco trade route started in 1568 and Spanish treasure fleets and its eastwards rivals, the Portuguese India Armadas routes of 1498-1640. Trade served as the fundamental source of income for Spanish colonists in the Philippine Islands. A total of 110 Manila galleons set sail in the 250 years of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade (1565 to 1815). Until 1593, three or more ships would set sail annually from each port. The Manila trade was becoming so lucrative that Seville merchants petitioned king Philip II of Spain to protect the monopoly of the Casa de Contratación based in Seville. This led to the passing of a decree in 1593 that set a limit of two ships sailing each year from either port, with one kept in reserve in Acapulco and one in Manila. An "armada" or armed escort of galleons, was also approved. With such limitations it was essential to build the largest possible galleons, which were the largest class of ships known to have been built anywhere up to that time. In the 16th century, they averaged from 1,700 to 2,000 tons, were built of Philippine hardwoods and could carry a thousand passengers. The Concepción, wrecked in 1638, was 43 to 49 m (140–160 feet) long and displacing some 2,000 tons. The Santísima Trinidad was 51.5 m long. Most of the ships were built in the Philippines and only eight in Mexico. The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade ended in 1815, a few years before Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. After this, the Spanish Crown took direct control of the Philippines, and was governed directly from Madrid. This became manageable in the mid-19th century upon the invention of steam power ships and the opening of the Suez Canal, which reduced the travel time from Spain to the Philippines to 40 days. The galleons carried spices, porcelain, ivory, lacquerware, processed silk cloth gathered from both the Spice Islands, and Asia-Pacific, to be sold in the Americas, namely New Spain and Peru as well as in European markets. East Asia trading was primarily on a silver standard; the goods were mostly bought by Mexican silver. The cargoes were transported by land across Mexico to the port of Veracruz on the Gulf of Mexico, where they were loaded onto the Spanish treasure fleet bound for Spain. This route was the alternative to the trip west across the Indian Ocean, and around the Cape of Good Hope, which was reserved to Portugal according to the Treaty of Tordesillas. It also avoided stopping over at ports controlled by … [Read more...]

Novel: Noli Me Tangere by José Rizal. First Published in Berlin, Germany 1887

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  Noli Me Tangere is a novel by Filipino polymath José Rizal and first published in 1887 in Berlin, Germany. Early English translations used titles like An Eagle Flight and The Social Cancer, but more recent translations have been published using the original Latin title. Though originally written in Spanish, it is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either English or Filipino. Together with its sequel (El Filibusterismo), the reading of Noli is obligatory for high school students all throughout the archipelago. References for the novel Jose Rizal, a Filipino nationalist and medical doctor, conceived the idea of writing a novel that would expose the ills of Philippine society after reading Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. He preferred that the prospective novel express the way Filipino culture was backward, anti-progress, anti-intellectual, and not conducive to the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. He was then a student of medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid. In a reunion of Filipinos at the house of his friend Pedro A. Paterno in Madrid on 2 January 1884, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines written by a group of Filipinos. His proposal was unanimously approved by the Filipinos present at the party, among whom were Pedro, Maximino and Antonio Paterno, Graciano López Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorente and Valentin Ventura. However, this project did not materialize. The people who agreed to help Rizal with the novel did not write anything. Initially, the novel was planned to cover and describe all phases of Filipino life, but almost everybody wanted to write about women. Rizal even saw his companions spend more time gambling and flirting with Spanish women. Because of this, he pulled out of the plan of co-writing with others and decided to draft the novel alone. Plot Having completed his studies in Europe, young Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin came back to the Philippines after a 7-year absence. In his honor, Don Santiago de los Santos, a family friend commonly known as Captain Tiago, threw a get-together party, which was attended by friars and other prominent figures. One of the guests, former San Diego curate Fray Dámaso Vardolagas belittled and slandered Ibarra. Ibarra brushed off the insults and took no offense; he instead politely excused himself and left the party because of an allegedly important task. The next day, Ibarra visits María Clara, his betrothed, the beautiful daughter of Captain Tiago and affluent resident of Binondo. Their long-standing love was clearly manifested in this meeting, and María Clara cannot help but reread the letters her sweetheart had written her before he went to Europe. Before Ibarra left for San Diego, Lieutenant Guevara, a Civil Guard, reveals to him the incidents preceding the death of his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town. According to Guevara, Don Rafael was unjustly accused of being a heretic, in addition to being a subservient — an allegation brought forth by Dámaso because of Don Rafael's non-participation in the Sacraments, such as Confession and Mass. Dámaso's animosity against Ibarra's father is aggravated by another incident when Don Rafael helped out on a fight between a tax collector and a child fighting, and the former's death was blamed on him, although it was not deliberate. Suddenly, all of those who thought ill of him surfaced with additional complaints. He was imprisoned, and just when the matter was almost settled, he died of sickness in jail. Still not content with what he had done, Dámaso arranged for Don Rafael's corpse to be dug up from the Catholic church and brought to a Chinese cemetery, because he thought it inappropriate to allow a heretic a Catholic burial ground. Unfortunately, it was raining and because of the bothersome weight of the body, the undertakers decide to throw the corpse into a nearby lake. Revenge was not in Ibarra's plans, instead he carried through his father's plan of putting up a school, since he believed that education would pave the way to his country's progress (all over the novel the author refers to both Spain and the Philippines as two different countries, which form part of a same nation or family, being Spain the mother and the Philippines the daughter). During the inauguration of the school, Ibarra would have been killed in a sabotage had Elías — a mysterious man who had warned Ibarra earlier of a plot to assassinate him — not saved him. Instead the hired killer met an unfortunate incident and died. The sequence of events proved to be too traumatic for María Clara who got seriously ill but was luckily cured by the medicine Ibarra sent. After the inauguration, Ibarra hosted a luncheon during which Dámaso, gate-crashing the luncheon, again insulted him. Ibarra ignored the priest's insolence, but when the latter slandered the memory of his dead father, he … [Read more...]

June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines

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June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines "A nation is born into freedom on the day when such a people, moulded into a nation by a process of cultural evolution and sense of oneness born of common struggle and suffering, announces to the world that it asserts its natural right to liberty and is ready to defend it with blood, life, and honor." The promotion of a healthy nationalism is part of the responsibility of the leaders of newly independent nations. After they lay the foundation for economic development, they promote nationalism and spur the search for national identity. This we can do by honoring our distinguished forebears and notable periods in our history. A step we took in this direction was to change the date for the commemoration of Philippine Independence day. When I was a congressman, I formed the opinion that July 4 was not the proper independence day for Filipinos and should be changed to June 12-- the date General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Filipinos in Kawit, Cavite, in 1898. Having served in the foreign service, I noted that the celebration of a common independence day with the United States on July 4 caused considerable inconvenience. The American celebration dwarfed that of the Philippines. As if to compound the irony, July 4 seemed tantamount to the celebration of Philippine subjection to and dependence on the United States which served to perpetuate unpleasant memories. I felt, too, that July 4 was not inspiring enough for the Filipino youth since it recalled mostly the peaceful independence missions to the United States. The celebration of independence day on June 12, on the other hand, would be a greater inspiration to the youth who would consequently recall the heroes of the revolution against Spain and their acts of sublime heroism and martyrdom. These acts compare favorably with those of the heroes of other nations. In checking the reaction to my plan to shift independence day to June 12, I found that there was virtual unanimity on the desirability of transferring the celebration from July 4. Likewise, there was a preponderant view for choosing June 12 as the proper day. A few suggested January 21, the opening day of the Malolos Congress in 1899, or January 23, when the Malolos Congress, ratifying the independence proclamation of June 12, established a republican system of government. The reason for this view was that the government temporarily by Aguinaldo when he proclaimed independence on June 12 was a dictatorship. There was no difficulty in adhering to June 12, however, because although Aguinaldo Government was a dictatorship in view of the military operations he was then leading, he led in converting it into a republican Government in the Malolos Congress. Moreover, the celebration of independence refers to its proclamation rather than to the final establishment of the government. In the case of America, when independence was proclaimed on July 4, the American Government was still a confederation and it was much later when it finally became a federal government. The historical fact was that the Filipinos proclaimed their independence from foreign rule on June 12. Even the national anthem and the Filipino flag which are essential features in the birth of a nation were played and displayed respectively at the independence proclamation in Kawit. When I became President, I knew that this was the opportunity to take action on what had been in my mind since entering public life. The specific question was when to make the change. The opportunity came when the US House of Representatives rejected the $73 million additional war payment bill on May 9, 1962. There was indignation among the Filipinos. There was a loss of American good will in the Philippines, although this was restored later by the reconsideration of the action of the US lower chamber. At this time, a state visit in the United States had been scheduled for Mrs. Macapagal and me on the initiative and invitation of President John F. Kennedy. Unable to resist the pressure of public opinion, I was constrained to obtain the agreement of Kennedy to defer the state visit for another time. To postpone the state visit, I wrote a letter on May 14, 1962, to Kennedy, which read in part as follows: The feeling of resentment among our people and the attitude of the US Congress negate the atmosphere of good will upon which my state visit to your country was predicated. Our people would never understand how, in the circumstances now obtaining, I could go to the United States and in all honesty affirm that I bear their message of good will. It is with deep regret theredore that I am constrained to ask you to agree to the postponement of my visit to a more auspicious time. On May 28, 1962, Kennedy wrote me explaining the situation on the war damage bill. His letter stated: In the meantime, I must respect your decision that … [Read more...]