The Philippine-American War,1899–1902 by Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State

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The Philippine-American War,1899–1902 from: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/war After its defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain ceded its longstanding colony of the Philippines to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. On February 4, 1899, just two days before the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, fighting broke out between American forces and Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo who sought independence rather than a change in colonial rulers. The ensuing Philippine-American War lasted three years and resulted in the death of over 4,200 American and over 20,000 Filipino combatants. As many as 200,000 Filipino civilians died from violence, famine, and disease. “Battle of Manila Bay” The decision by U.S. policymakers to annex the Philippines was not without domestic controversy. Americans who advocated annexation evinced a variety of motivations: desire for commercial opportunities in Asia, concern that the Filipinos were incapable of self-rule, and fear that if the United States did not take control of the islands, another power (such as Germany or Japan) might do so. Meanwhile, American opposition to U.S. colonial rule of the Philippines came in many forms, ranging from those who thought it morally wrong for the United States to be engaged in colonialism, to those who feared that annexation might eventually permit the non-white Filipinos to have a role in American national government. Others were wholly unconcerned about the moral or racial implications of imperialism and sought only to oppose the policies of PresidentWilliam McKinley’s administration. After the Spanish-American War, while the American public and politicians debated the annexation question, Filipino revolutionaries under Aguinaldo seized control of most of the Philippines’ main island of Luzon and proclaimed the establishment of the independent Philippine Republic. When it became clear that U.S. forces were intent on imposing American colonial control over the islands, the early clashes between the two sides in 1899 swelled into an all-out war. Americans tended to refer to the ensuing conflict as an “insurrection” rather than acknowledge the Filipinos’ contention that they were fighting to ward off a foreign invader. Emilio Aguinaldo There were two phases to the Philippine-American War. The first phase, from February to November of 1899, was dominated by Aguinaldo’s ill-fated attempts to fight a conventional war against the better-trained and equipped American troops. The second phase was marked by the Filipinos’ shift to guerrilla-style warfare. It began in November of 1899, lasted through the capture of Aguinaldo in 1901 and into the spring of 1902, by which time most organized Filipino resistance had dissipated. President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed a general amnesty and declared the conflict over on July 4, 1902, although minor uprisings and insurrections against American rule periodically occurred in the years that followed. The United States entered the conflict with undeniable military advantages that included a trained fighting force, a steady supply of military equipment, and control of the archipelago’s waterways. Meanwhile, the Filipino forces were hampered by their inability to gain any kind of outside support for their cause, chronic shortages of weapons and ammunition, and complications produced by the Philippines’ geographic complexity. Under these conditions, Aguinaldo’s attempt to fight a conventional war in the first few months of the conflict proved to be a fatal mistake; the Filipino Army suffered severe losses in men and material before switching to the guerrilla tactics that might have been more effective if employed from the beginning of the conflict. President Theodore Roosevelt The war was brutal on both sides. U.S. forces at times burned villages, implemented civilian reconcentration policies, and employed torture on suspected guerrillas, while Filipino fighters also tortured captured soldiers and terrorized civilians who cooperated with American forces. Many civilians died during the conflict as a result of the fighting, cholera and malaria epidemics, and food shortages caused by several agricultural catastrophes. Even as the fighting went on, the colonial government that the United States established in the Philippines in 1900 under future President William Howard Taft launched a pacification campaign that became known as the “policy of attraction.” Designed to win over key elites and other Filipinos who did not embrace Aguinaldo’s plans for the Philippines, this policy permitted a significant degree of self-government, introduced social reforms, and implemented plans for economic development. Over time, this program gained important Filipino adherents and undermined the revolutionaries’ popular appeal, which significantly aided the United States’ military effort to win the war. In 1907, the … [Read more...]

U.S. WAR CRIMES IN THE PHILIPPINES, (1898-1899). By World Future Fund

 U.S. WAR CRIMES IN THE PHILIPPINES Courtesy of: http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/war.crimes/US/U.S.Philippines.htm .   The U.S. occupation of the Philippine Islands came about as a result of military operations against the Spanish Empire during the Spanish-American war of 1898-99.  The seizure of the Philippines by the United States, however, was not unplanned.  American eyes had been set on the Philippines since before the outbreak of war.  To many prominent Americans, establishing a colony in the Philippines was a logical extension of the nation's "manifest destiny" to play a leading role on the world stage.  An expanded American presence in Asia was also thought to have significant commercial advantages for the nation, since American companies could then participate directly in large Asian markets. For all the alleged advantages to possessing the Philippines, no thought was given to whether or not native Filipinos would welcome American as opposed to Spanish rule.  The Filipinos were of course never informed of American intentions to stay in the Philippines.  This turned out to be a serious error.  By 1898 Filipinos had already shed a considerable amount of blood since rising up in 1896 to free themselves from Spanish domination.  They would not take kindly to a change in colonial administration from Spain to the United States. The First Philippine Republic and the End of Spanish Rule On May 1, 1898, an American fleet under Dewey sailed into Manila harbor and quickly destroyed a small force of Spanish ships anchored there.  Plans for Dewey to commence offensive operations against the Spanish in the Philippines had originated several months before, in February, when Assistant Secretary for the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, had cabled Dewey to say "Your duty will be to see that the Spanish squadron does not leave the Asiatic coast ... start offensive operations in Philippine Islands."[1] Because a considerable number of Spanish troops remained stationed throughout the Philippines, including a large force in Manila itself, American diplomats urged resistance leader Emilio Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong.  Before journeying to his homeland, Aguinaldo, who was overjoyed at the American declaration of war on Spain, cabled resistance members the following message, which clearly expresses his belief that the Americans had come to liberate his people: "Divine Providence is about to place independence within our reach.  The Americans, not from mercenary motives, but for the sake of humanity and the lamentations of so many persecuted people have considered it opportune to extend their protecting mantle to our beloved country. ... At the present moment an American squadron is preparing to sail to the Philippines. The Americans will attack by sea and prevent any re-enforcements coming from Spain. ... We insurgents must attack by land. ... There where you see the American flag flying, assemble in number; they are our redeemers!"[2] Aguinaldo sent another message several days later expressing the same confidence in American altruism: "Filipinos, the great nation, North America, cradle of liberty and friendly on that account to the liberty of our people ... has come to manifest a protection ... which is disinterested towards us, considering us with sufficient civilization to govern by ourselves this our unhappy land."[3] Energized by the seemingly fortunate turn of events, the Filipinos immediately went on the offensive.  Within weeks Aguinaldo's insurgents had pushed the Spanish back to Manila.  Fighting would continue for another two months, until American forces arrived in enough numbers to complete the defeat of Spanish troops holed up in Manila.  Aguinaldo and his men were ecstatic with their victory and on June 12, 1898 they proclaimed Filipino independence.  The First Philippine Republic had been founded. What the Americans Promised the Filipinos The declaration of a Philippine Republic should not have come as a shock to the Americans.  No American military commander or politician had formally promised the Filipinos independence after the end of fighting, but this is not the impression that motivated Emilio Aguinaldo and his men.  Statements made by several of the participants in these events suggest that by supporting the armed resistance of Filipinos to the Spanish, the United States was de facto guaranteeing the Filipinos their independence.  For example, American Consul Wildman in Hong Kong wrote at the time, "the United States undertook this war [against Spain] for the sole purpose of relieving the Cubans from the cruelties under which they were suffering and not for the love of conquests or the hope of gain.  They are actuated by precisely the same feelings for the Filipinos."[4]  Admiral Dewey emphasized that during the liberation of the islands the Filipinos had cooperated directly … [Read more...]

Books: Books on America and the Philippine Moros by Robert A. Fulton

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Books on America and the Moros by Robert A. Fulton http://www.morolandhistory.com/Books_page/Book_Page.htm         Released January 15, 2012     The Battle of Bud Dajo took place over three days, March 5-8, 1906. It pitted the U.S. Army. U.S. Navy, and the Philippine Constabulary against 800-1,000 dissident Muslims who had fortified the top of a rugged, 2,175 feet high dormant volcano on the island of Jolo in the southern Philippine Islands. Although beginning as a genuine military contest, it ended as a tragic and terrible, one-sided massacre, with no more than a small and pitiful handful of the Muslims left alive.      Although lesser known. It ranks beside such infamous names as "Sand Creek" (1864), "Wounded Knee"(1890), and "My Lai" (1968) as one of the darkest, bloodiest, and most controversial episodes in America's long and troubled history of deadly encounters with indigenous peoples.     More than just a straightforward account of an epic fight on a spectacular mountain, it is also the story of a second and equally vicious donnybrook within the nations' press and on the floor of Congress to comprehend what had actually occurred on that remote field of battle and why. At stake were the careers of one the most well known soldiers of the early 20th Century, General Leonard Wood, former commanding officer of the famed Spanish-American War cavalry regiment, the Rough Riders. Also risk was a future President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, William Howard Taft, as well as the reputation of one of the country's most popular Presidents, Theodore Roosevelt.     But there is also a mystery here. The real story of what happened would remain buried for more than another century. Why? Was there a deliberate, and successful, cover up? If the real facts had come to light sooner, would it have mattered? Could it have impacted the course of American history? Is there a lesson to take away here, or at least a warning?     HONOR FOR THE FLAG is based on path finding research into the original files, which was first published in 2007 my book MOROLAND; but it is much broader in scope and not only narrates a reliable account of the battle itself but how it rapidly evolved into a contentious and divisive debate over the moral basis of American intervention in foreign lands.     200 pages, including 72 photographs and illustrations. To see reviews and purchase, click on the web links below:         Moroland is the lost history of the once-famed struggle between the United States Army and the "wild" Moros, the Muslims of the southern Philippine islands. Lasting over two decades, it was this country's first sustained encounter with a volatile mixture of nation building, insurgency, counterinsurgency, and militant Islamism.     An unanticipated byproduct of the Spanish-American War, the task of subduing and then "civilizing" the "Land of the Moros" was delegated to the U.S. Army. Working through the traditional ruling hierarchy and respecting an ancient system of laws based on the Qur'an, Moro Province became an autonomous, military-governed Islamic colony within a much larger, overwhelmingly Christian territory, the Philippine Islands.     An initially successful occupation, it transitioned to a grand experiment: an audacious plan to transform and remake Moro society, values, and culture in an American image; placing the Moros on an uncertain and ill-defined path towards inclusion in an eventual Western-style democracy. But the Moros reacted with obstinate and unyielding resistance to what they perceived as a deliberate attack on the religion of Islam and a way of life ordained by God. This ignited a constant stream of battles and expeditions known in U.S. Army history as the Moro Campaigns and lasting more than a decade. In violence and ferocity they may have equaled, if not surpassed, the more famous late-19th Century Indian Wars of the Great Plains. It also led to the creation of the fabled Moro Constabulary, small contingents of native troops led by American, European, and Filipino officers.     The backdrop is a bustling, raucous, newly-prosperous nation finding its way as a world and imperial power. But with this new-found status came a near-religious belief that the active spread of America's institutions, values, and form of government, even when achieved through coercion or force, would create a better world. A subtext is a deep and bitter rivalry between two of its most prominent players, Captain John J. Pershing and General Leonard Wood, born only one month apart, each championing markedly opposed military philosophies. Eventually they would compete to lead one-million American "doughboys" into the cauldron of the world's first Great War.     Few Americans are aware that a century later the U.S. military has quietly returned to Moroland, to battle "radical Islamist terrorism"; … [Read more...]

Book: The Ordeal of Samar. Schott, Joseph L. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1964.

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      The Ordeal of Samar. Schott, Joseph L. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1964. Hardcover, 302 pages, b&w photographs, index. A chronicle of the Philippine insurrection against American troops immediately after the Spanish American War, and of the sensational court martial that changed history. “The Balangiga massacre was an incident in 1901 in the town of the same name during the Philippine–American War. It initially referred to the killing of about 48 members of the US 9th Infantry by the townspeople allegedly augmented by guerrillas in the town of Balangiga on Samar Island during an attack on September 28 of that year. In the 1960s Filipino nationalists applied it to the retaliatory measures taken on the island. This incident was described as the United States Army's worst defeat since the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. Filipinos regard the attack as one of their bravest acts in the war.” - Wikipedia … [Read more...]

Book: HANG THE DOGS: THE TRUE TRAGIC HISTORY OF THE BALANGIGA MASSACRE

escrima kali arnis philippines luzon visayas mindanao FMA eskrimador, dino flores, mandirigma.org

Book Review IN-DEPTH AND INFORMATIVE By Quintin L. Doroquez   Original article at : http://gugma.samarnews.net/articles/article8.htm     HANG THE DOGS: THE TRUE TRAGIC HISTORY OF THE BALANGIGA MASSACRE BOB COUTTIE New Day Publishers Quezon City, Philippines California Distributor: Philippine Expressions Mail Order Bookshop $24.95 (paper, 462 pages) Hang The Dogs: The True Tragic History of the Balangiga Massacre is quite an intriguing title of a serious book. If the book, or any book for that matter on related title, were set in or were about the British Isles, where the author is originally from, it may outright invite distaste on sight from animal lovers of which Britons mostly are. Hang the dogs -- that's quite a harsh “edict”, coming as it does from a third party (the author) if addressed to a particular party or group alone involved. However, Bob Couttie's edict, if we call the title of his book on the Balangiga Incident as such, is an aphorism directed to the party that did something wrong, the party that should make amend. And in the Balangiga Incident both parties -- the Americans and the Filipinos, to varying degrees -- do need to make amend. In war the two sides, combatants if you will, try to outwit or beat one another. Hence, one side tries to "hang" the other in order to prevail. Whichever side has the upper hand takes the other side as a bunch of dogs to be hung -- “massacred” -- as did (according to historical accounts) the natives of Balangiga on 28 September 1901, if that is the most possible way to achieve what one or the party involved had set out to accomplish. Even scorch and turn a big island into a howling wilderness, as did the Americans to the island of Samar, in the Philippines, in revenge after the Balangiga Incident. The Balangiga Incident took place over a century ago. Therefore, the author’s imperative is now merely a gesture to catch a prospective reader's attention on a commodity in print -- a book. But "hang", which apparently is the author's metaphor for what amounts to kill, destroy, rid, or devour a century ago in war, is all the same throughout the ages. It still is -- to varying degrees. If Bob Couttie were to write a book on the war in Iraq, one could fairly anticipate his title, Strip the Dogs Naked: The True Tragic Story Behind Misled Intelligence. Something of the sort. The facts then emerge. He will portray, with unassailable proof, as he did on Balangiga, that those stripping the dogs naked, whether in a prison or elsewhere in high places of government are themselves dogs, and more. In Hang The Dogs the author actually turns out to be the one hanging the “canines”. He exposes, with unimpeachable evidence, the cravings of the Americans and the Filipinos to devour each other -- the Americans in their lust to create an empire, the Filipinos to resist and prevent being shamed. The “awod” (a local term for shame) factor was overriding among the Filipinos in Balangiga. Bob Couttie does not fail to point this out. So much about the title. Written largely in lean prose, the book is cool. Easy to read. It is the product of a ten-year assiduous research -- possibly the most exhaustive work on the Balangiga Incident thus far, and will remain so for sometime if ever surpassed. Yet still, ironically, at some point the author hedges for want of more facts that he stipulates must be somewhere in some repositories. The book provides a reasonably adequate background of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, as it does of the history of the island of Samar itself where the town of Balangiga, the epicenter of the book, is located. Here and beyond, the author discusses the ferment that led a people to rise in rebellion. Adequately given this background, the author takes the reader quickly to the Philippine-American War. Of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, of interest is the account -- for some reason largely unknown even to many in the Philippines who claim to have good college education -- about the death of Andres Bonifacio, the founder of the secret organization Katipunan that advocated armed struggle against Spain. The author leaves little doubt that Philippine history books -- which Philippine students studied (under ill-prepared so-called professors) in some allegedly reputable schools, particularly in the decades of the ‘60s through the mid ‘80s -- had the truth swept under the rug. That is of course the period largely of the Marcosian era. And whoever may dispute Bob Couttie’s facts only exposes her/his inadequacy or ignorance. The author candidly discusses the sad event leading to the execution of the Katipunan’s “Supremo”, the title that the founder of the secret organization had chosen for himself. The next scenario becomes predictable, the emergence of Emilio Aguinaldo, Bonifacio’s rival who displayed considerable talent early in his military career, as an undisputed military and … [Read more...]

The PBS Film: Crucible of Empire – The Spanish American War

Katipunero

  The PBS Film: Crucible of Empire - The Spanish American War   One hundred years ago, United States celebrated victory in the Spanish-American War. Popular songs and headlines popularized Commodore Dewey's victories at sea and Theodore Roosevelt's ride up Kettle Hill. Although the Spanish-American War sparked unprecedented levels of patriotism and confidence, the defeat of the Spanish also raised new questions about the nation's role as a world power. CRUCIBLE OF EMPIRE: THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR, narrated by award-winning actor Edward James Olmos, examines the colorful characters and historic events surrounding this 100-year-old war and its relevance to the twentieth century. When a declining Spain, beset by rebellion abroad, fell to American expansionism, the United States inherited her colonies and suddenly emerged as a world power. The experience and questions that the Spanish-American War raised about foreign intervention echo throughout the 20th century—as recent events in Kosovo show. Even in its own time, the war with Spain was understood as a turning point in American history. As the twentieth century ends, it is instructive to note the complexities and significance of this very brief war that began this century. In the words of noted historian Walter LaFeber, "The 1898 war literally as well as chronologically ushered in the United States as a major shaper, soon the major shaper, of twentieth-century world politics and commerce." In the process, it also unified a nation still embittered by Civil War divisions; debuted the media in its role as catalyst of U.S. intervention; built up the navy and inspired a re-evaluation of the army; and vastly broadened the powers of the president in wartime and foreign affairs. Clearly, the Spanish-American War was more than the war that ended the nineteenth century; it was also the war that launched the American century. Using original footage and period photographs, newspaper headlines, more than a dozen popular songs from the 1890s, and interviews with some of America's most prominent historians, CRUCIBLE OF EMPIRE tells how issues of race, economy, technology, yellow journalism, and public opinion propelled America into this war. Four 1990s Senators bring to life the 1899 Senate debate on imperialism: Patrick Leahy (VT), Frank Lautenberg (NJ), Paul Simon (IL), and Alan Simpson (WY). The film also features Larry Linville (Major Frank "Ferret Face" Burns of "M*A*S*H") as the voice of Rough Rider Theodore Roosevelt, Laurence Luckinbill as President William McKinley, and Lou Diamond Phillips as Philippine revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo. Continue reading at: http://www.pbs.org/crucible/film.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8g8NpQsmxj4 http://youtu.be/8g8NpQsmxj4 … [Read more...]

Some of the Combat, Massacres,Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands according to the book “The Inhabitants of the Philippines” By Frederic H. Sawyer. 1900

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Some of the Combat, Massacres, Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands. according to the Book_   The Inhabitants of the Philippines By Frederic H. Sawyer Memb. Inst. C.E., Memb. Inst. N.A. London Sampson Low, Marston and Company Limited St. Dunstan’s House Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.C. 1900     Some of the Combat, Massacres, Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands.   1521. Magellan and several of his followers killed in action by the natives of Mactan, near Cebú; Juan Serrano and many other Spaniards treacherously killed by Hamabar, King of Cebú. 1525. Salazar fights the Portuguese off Mindanao, and suffers great losses in ships and men. 1568. Legaspi’s expedition attacked in Cebú by a Portuguese fleet, which was repulsed. 1570. Legaspi founds the city of Cebú, with the assistance of the Augustinians. 1571. Legaspi founds the city of Manila, with the assistance of the Augustinians. 1572. Juan Salcedo fights the Datto of Zambales, and delivers his subjects from oppression. 1574. Siege of Manila by the Chinese pirate Li-ma-hon with 95 small vessels and 2000 men. The Spaniards and natives repulse the attack. The pirates retire to Pangasinan, and are attacked and destroyed by Juan Salcedo. 1577. War against Mindanao and Joló, parts of which are occupied. Disputes between the missionaries and the military officers who desire to enrich themselves by enslaving the natives, which the former stoutly oppose, desiring to convert them, and grant them exemption from taxes according to the “Leyes de Indias.” They considered the cupidity of the soldiers as the chief obstacle to the conversion of the heathen. The Crown decided in favour of the natives, but they did not derive all the benefits they were entitled to, as the humane laws were not respected by the governors. The Franciscans arrived in Manila. 1580. Expedition sent by Gonzalo Ronquillo to Borneo to assist King Sirela. 1581. Expedition sent by the same to Cagayan to expel a Japanese corsair who had established himself there. The expedition succeeded, but with heavy loss. Expedition against the Igorrotes to get possession of the gold-mines, but without success. The Jesuits arrive in Manila. 1582. Expedition against the Molucas, under Sebastian Ronquillo.[390]An epidemic destroyed two-thirds of the expedition, which returned without accomplishing anything. Great disputes between the encomenderos and the friars in consequence of the ill-treatment of the natives by the former. Dissensions between the Bishop of Manila and the friars who refused to submit to his diocesan visit. Manila burnt down. 1584. Second expedition against the Molucas, with no better luck than the first. Rebellion of the Pampangos and Manila men, assisted by some Mahometans from Borneo. Combat between the English pirate, Thomas Schadesh, and Spanish vessels. Combat between the English adventurer Thomas Cavendish (afterwards Sir Thomas), and Spanish vessels. 1587. The Dominicans arrive in Manila. 1589. Rebellion in Cagayan and other provinces. 1593. Third expedition against the Molucas under Gomez Perez Dasmariñias. He had with him in his galley 80 Spaniards and 250 Chinese galley-slaves. In consequence of contrary winds, his vessel put into a port near Batangas for shelter. In the silence of the night, when the Spaniards were asleep, the galley-slaves arose and killed them all except a Franciscan friar and a secretary. Dasmariñias built the castle of Santiago, and fortified Manila with stone walls, cast a large number of guns, and established the college of Sta. Potenciana. 1596. The galleon which left Manila for Acapulco with rich merchandise, was obliged to enter a Japanese port by stress of weather, and was seized by the Japanese authorities. The crew were barbarously put to death. 1597. Expedition of Luis Perez Dasmariñias against Cambodia, which gained no advantage. 1598. The Audiencia re-established in Manila, and the bishopric raised to an archbishopric. Expedition against Mindanao and Joló, the people from which were committing great devastations in Visayas, taking hundreds of captives. Much fighting, and many killed on both sides, without any definite result. 1599. Destructive earthquake in Manila and neighbourhood. 1600. Great sea combat between four Spanish ships, commanded by Judge Morga, and two Dutch pirates. One of the Dutchmen was taken, but the other escaped. Another destructive earthquake on January 7th, and one less violent, but long, in November. 1603. Conspiracy of Eng-Cang and the Chinese against the Spaniards. The Chinese entrench themselves near Manila; Luis Perez Dasmariñias marches against them with 130 Spaniards. They were all killed and decapitated by the … [Read more...]

BOOK: True Version of the Philippine Revolution By Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy President of the Philippine Republic., Tarlak (Philippine Islands), 23rd September, 1899

Aguinaldo-Emilio

True Version of the Philippine Revolution By Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy President of the Philippine Republic. Tarlak (Philippine Islands), 23rd September, 1899 To All Civilized Nations and Especially to the Great North American Republic I dedicate to you this modest work with a view to informing you respecting the international events which have occurred during the past three years and are still going on in the Philippines, in order that you may be fully acquainted with the facts and be thereby placed in a position to pronounce judgment upon the issue and be satisfied and assured of the Justice which forms the basis and is in fact the foundation of our Cause. I place the simple truth respectfully before and dedicate it to you as an act of homage and as testimony of my admiration for and recognition of the wide knowledge, the brilliant achievements and the great power of other nations, whom I salute, in the name the Philippine nation, with every effusion of my soul. The Author. Page 1 The Revolution of 1896 Spain maintained control of the Philippine Islands for more than three centuries and a half, during which period the tyranny, misconduct and abuses of the Friars and the Civil and Military Administration exhausted the patience of the natives and caused them to make a desperate effort to shake off the unbearable galling yoke on the 26th and 31st August, 1896, then commencing the revolution in the provinces of Manila and Cavite. On these memorable days the people of Balintawak, Santa Mesa, Kalookan, Kawit, Noveleta and San Francisco de Malabon rose against the Spaniards and proclaimed the Independence of the Philippines, and in the course of the next five days these uprisings were followed by the inhabitants of the other towns in Cavite province joining in the revolt against the Spanish Government although there was no previous arrangement looking to a general revolt. The latter were undoubtedly moved to action by the noble example of the former.Page 2 With regard to the rising in the province of Cavite it should be stated that although a call to arms bearing the signatures of Don Augustin Rieta, Don Candido Firona and myself, who were Lieutenants of the Revolutionary Forces, was circulated there was no certainty about the orders being obeyed, or even received by the people, for it happened that one copy of the orders fell into the hands of a Spaniard named Don Fernando Parga, Military Governor of the province, who at that time was exercising the functions of Civil Governor, who promptly reported its contents to the Captain-General of the Philippines, Don Ramon Blanco y Erenas. The latter at once issued orders for the Spanish troops to attack the revolutionary forces. It would appear beyond doubt that One whom eye of man hath not seen in his wisdom and mercy ordained that the emancipation of the oppressed people of the Philippines should be undertaken at this time, for otherwise it is inexplicable how men armed only with sticks andgulok1 wholly unorganized and undisciplined, could defeat the Spanish Regulars in severe engagements at Bakoor, Imus and Noveleta and, in addition to making many of them prisoners, captured a large quantity of arms and ammunition. It was owing to this astonishing success of the revolutionary troops that General Blanco quickly concluded to endeavour, to maintain Spanish control by the adoption of a Page 3conciliatory policy under the pretext that thereby he could quel the rebellion, his first act being a declaration to the effect that it was not the purpose of his Government to oppress the people and he had no desire “to slaughter the Filipinos.”. The Government of Madrid disapproved of General Blanco's new policy and speedily appointed Lieutenant-General Don Camilo Polavieja to supersede him, and despatched forthwith a large number of Regulars to the Philippines. General Polavieja advanced against the revolutionary forces with 16,000 men armed with Mausers, and one field battery. He had scarcely reconquered half of Cavite province when he resigned, owing to bad health. That was in April, 1897. Polavieja was succeeded by the veteran General Don Fernando Primo de Rivera, who had seen much active service. As soon as Rivera had taken over command of the Forces he personally led his army in the assault upon and pursuit of the revolutionary forces, and so firmly, as well as humanely, was the campaign conducted that he soon reconquered the whole of Cavite province and drove the insurgents into the mountains. Then I established my headquarters in the wild and unexplored mountain fastness of Biak-na-bató, where I formed the Republican Government of the Philippines at the end of May, 1897.Page 4 1 A kind of sword—Translator. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató Don Pedro Alejandro Paterno (who was appointed by the Spanish Governor-General sole mediator in the discussion of the terms of peace) visited Biak-na-bató several times to negotiate terms of … [Read more...]

SILENT FILM: Philippine American War – Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan by Thomas A. Edison; 5 June 1899

Philippine American War

Philippine American War - Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan by Thomas A. Edison; 5 June 1899 From LibraryOfCongress, Washinton D.C.   Comment by Mandirigma.org: At the time of this production, film was a brand new medium. This Film by Thomas Edison shows Filipino Freedom Fighters defending their country against  American Invaders. However the director portrays the Filipinos as "Rebels" and the Americans as defenders of "Freedom" and "Liberty" who overcome the "Insurgents".   http://youtu.be/_ZjrPU6rPHE     SUMMARY From Edison films catalog: From the thick underbrush where the Filipinos are massed comes volley after volley. They are making one of those determined stands that marks Caloocan as the bloodiest battle of the Filipino rebellion. Suddenly, with impetuous rush, Funston's men appear. They pause but for a moment, to fire, reload and fire. The color bearer falls, but the standard is caught up by brave Sergeant Squires and waves undaunted in the smoke and din of the receding battle. This is one of the best battle pictures ever made. The first firing is done directly toward the front of the picture, and the advance of the U.S. troops apparently through the screen is very exciting; the gradual disappearance of the fighters sustaining the interest to the end. 65 feet. $9.75. NOTES Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 5June1899; 37443. Original main title lacking. Reenacted by the New Jersey National Guard. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. Edison code name (for telegraphic orders): Unbroached. MAVIS 47087; Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan. Reenacted May 1899 in the Orange Mountains near West Orange, New Jersey. Sources used: Copyright catalog, motion pictures, 1894-1912; Musser, C. Edison motion pictures 1890-1900, 1997; Niver, K.R. Early motion pictures, 1985; Edison films catalog, no. 94, March 1900, p. 4 [MI]; Edison films catalog, no. 105, July 1901, p. 30 [MI]. SUBJECTS United States.--Army.--Kansas Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 20th. Philippines--History--Philippine American War, 1899-1902--Battlefields. Battles--Philippines. Soldiers. Revolutionaries--Philippines. Funston, Frederick,--1865-1917--Military leadership. Battle casualties--Philippines. Flags--United States. War films. Historical reenactments (Motion pictures) Short films. Silent films. Nonfiction films. RELATED NAMES White, James H. (James Henry), production. New Jersey. National Guard. Thomas A. Edison, Inc. Paper Print Collection (Library of Congress) CALL NUMBER FEC 2820 (ref print) FPE 9628 (dupe neg) FPE 9135 (masterpos) LC 973a (paper pos) DIGITAL ID sawmp 0973 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/sawmp.0973   … [Read more...]

Katipunero: Simeón Ola y Arboleda -Philippine Revolution Hero and the last General to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War

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  The Paternal Great Grandfather of Mandirigma.orgs' Guro Dino Flores, Segundo Flores was a Katipunero serving under the General Simeón Ola y Arboleda in the Bicol Region. Major Simeón Ola y Arboleda was under General Vito Belarmino, the Zone Commander of the Revolutionary Forces in the Bicol Region. ---------- Simeón Ola y Arboleda Municipal President of Albay, In office 1904–1908 Born: 2 September 1865 Guinobatan, Albay, Philippines Died : 14 February 1952 (aged 86) Guinobatan, Albay, Philippines Organization: Katipunan Simeón Ola y Arboleda (September 2, 1865 – February 14, 1952) was a hero of the Philippine Revolution and the last general to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War. Biography Simeon Ola was born on September 2, 1865 to Vicente Ola and Apolonia Arboleda, who were ordinary citizens with little money. He was enrolled in Holy Rosary Minor Seminary and studied Philosophy, but didn't finish the course. He joined the local branch of the Katipunan in his hometown province of Albay and later became the leader. With the help of a parish priest he was able to acquire arms to support his men. He was promoted to the rank of captain after the battle of Camalig in Albay, 1898 and again promoted to the rank of major after a daring ambush mission that led to the capture of three Americans. He was also the leader of the subsequent valiant attacks on Albay towns namely, Oas, Ligao and Jovellar. He later surrendered on the condition that his men would be granted amnesty. He was put on trial and was proven guilty of sedition and was sentenced to thirty years in prison. In 1904, he was given a pardon and returned to his place of birth and became the municipal president. The regional police command in Legazpi City was name after him. SIMEON A. OLA (1865-1952) Revolutionist In Guinobatan, Albay hailed Simeon Ola, the man who would lead the Bicolanos fight for their freedom. He was born on September 2, 1865 to Vicente Ola and Apolonia Arboleda. Ola was highly regarded in Guinobatan, being the teniente de cuadrillos and a trusted confidant of Father Carlos Cabido, the parish priest of his town. These positions helped him carry out his revolutionary works – recruiting men and acquiring firearms for the revolutionary army. He connived with the jail warden in his town, Sergeant Loame, to free about 93 prisoners. The prisoners soon joined his army. In April 1898, he fought in the battle of Camalig. General Vito Belarmino, the Zone Commander of the Revolutionary Forces in the Bicol Region, designated him the rank of a Captain. Fully committed to the cause of the revolution, he also raised funds amounting to P42, 000.00, which he turned over to General Mariano Trias, Secretary of Finance of the Revolutionary Government. On January 23, 1900, he was promoted Major after he successfully effected an ambush and captured three American soldiers: Dubose, Fred Hunter and Russel. In February that same year, his troops fought against the Americans in Arimbay, Legaspi. His cousin Jose Arboleda perished in the bloody battle. American soldiers’ mighty firepower and combat training did not dampen his spirit; he continued to fight so that his men were encouraged and more men joined his army. With the army of Colonel Engracio Orence, he fought valiantly in the battle of Binogsacan in Guinobatan, Albay. His army rested for over a month in July 1901 when he accompanied General Belarmino to Manila. He resumed his campaign in August by raiding the town of Oas, Albay. On August 12, 1902, he ambushed the American detachment at Macabugos, Ligao. Ola became a marked man to the Americans. Although his troops were easily repulsed during battles, the Americans took him seriously. From March to October 1903, the Americans set up the reconcentration system as a means to stop Ola’s activities. Because of the damage it caused even to the innocent civilians, they turned into negotiations. They sent Ramon Santos and Major Jesse S. Garwood of the Constabulary as emissaries to negotiate for his surrender, which he politely refused. Instead, he carried on his battle. On July 15, 1903, he ambushed the 31st Philippine Scout Garrison under the command of Sergeant Nicolas Napoli in Joveliar, Albay. The persistent effort of the peace panel and his battle weary men made Ola realized that he could never win the war. He became open to the agreement set by Colonel Harry H. Bandholtz, the Assistant Commander of the Constabulary in Lucena, Tayabas, for his surrender. The agreement included general amnesty, fair treatment and justice to his comrades in arms. On September 25, 1903 the negotiating panel composed of Ramon Santos, Eligio Arboleda, Epifanio Orozco, Frank L. Pyle, John Paegelow, J.B. Allison and Joseph Rogers went to his camp in Malagnaton, Mapaco, Guinobatan. Eventually, Ola surrendered to Governor Bette and Colonel … [Read more...]

Emilio Aguinaldo filmed with actor Douglas Fairbanks, Philippines, 1931

Emilio Aguinaldo and Douglas Fairbanks his Cavite home March 26 1931

Emilio Aguinaldo filmed with actor Douglas Fairbanks, Philippines, 1931 http://youtu.be/QJyqxWhQ38o In 1931 Douglas Fairbanks went on a trip to Asia, and made a comic travelogue entitled "Around the World in 80 Minutes". The clip from the Philippines included a short speech in Spanish by Emilio Aguinaldo. Fairbanks was a movie producer and actor in silent films. He co-founded the American film studio United Artists and hosted the first Oscars Ceremony in 1929. La calidad del audio deja mucho que desear, pero me parece que el Sr. Aguinaldo dijo: "Os participo de que he dado la bienvenida a nuestro gran actor (?Douglas Fairbanks) de America. Por la misma razón espero que esta visita que nos ha dignado dicho gran actor,(???), estrechará más la armonía entre americanos y filipinos" Una traducción literal: I have given welcome to our great actor, Douglas Fairbanks, from America. For the same reason, I hope that this visit by this great actor, who has humbled himself to us, will develop greater harmony between Americans and Filipinos.     … [Read more...]

Sino pumatay kay Antonio Luna? – Philippine TV Show Crime Klasik – Episode #301 – June 8, 2012

General Antonio Luna

Sino pumatay kay Antonio Luna? - Philippine TV Show Crime Klasik - Episode #301 - June 8, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvBeckZI9Jo     Isa sa pinakamatapang at pinakamatalinong Heneral na lumaban sa mananakop si General Antonio Luna. Pero hindi tulad ng ibang bayani, sa kamay raw ng kapwa Pilipino natapos ang kaniyang buhay. Paano nabago nito ang ating kasaysayan?   Was it Aguinaldo who had Antonio Luna killed? Go back in time and know the history of Antonio Luna here in Crime Klasik.   More on Crime Klasik: https://www.facebook.com/CrimeKlasik     … [Read more...]

Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library

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Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library Aside from the Masonic influence on the Katipunan, the design of the Philippine flag has roots in the flag family to which it belongs—that of the last group of colonies that sought independence from the Spanish Empire at the close of the 19th century, a group to which the Philippines belongs. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office traces the origins of the Philippine flag’s design elements, which have been in use since General Emilio Aguinaldo first conceived them—the stars and stripes; the red, white, and blue; the masonic triangle; and the sun—and have endured since. Source: http://malacanang.gov.ph/3846-origin-of-the-symbols-of-our-national-flag/     … [Read more...]

Pre-Standardized Philippine Flag by Ambeth R. Ocampo

Philippine Revolution Sun

Before the Philippine flag was standardized into the form we know today, the sun had a human face and eight rays that differed depending on who made it. The sun in the flag also appeared as: seals, stamps, and logos on official communications. I'm not sure if this is a stamp for postage, revenue, or documentary tax. Ambeth R. Ocampo … [Read more...]

Movie: Supremo (2012), Andres Bonifacio as husband, brother, soldier and hero

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http://youtu.be/oHQ34CKnkIM     About Andres Bonifacio's Biopic Description Andres Bonifacio as husband, brother, soldier and hero Release date August 2012 Genre Epic Drama Studio Alternative Vision Cinema and Strawdogs Studio Productions Plot outline Manila, year 1896. The cry for independence from the tyranny of Spain peals louder than ever. Andres Bonifacio, leader of the rebel movement the Katipunan, leads his men to war. Though ill-equipped and untried in the field of battle, the Katipuneros launch an offensive against a vastly superior Spanish military. What follows is a series of events that will test the nation's brave sons, and an aftermath that will separate the genuine patriots from mere participants. Starring Alfred Vargas, Mon Confiado, Nicco Manalo, Alex Vincent Medina, Edmon Romawac, Shielbert Manuel, Lehner Mendoza, Manu Respall, Jeff Fernandez, Banjo Romero, Alex Cabodil, Nica Naval and Hermie Concepcion Directed by Richard V. Somes Written By Jimmy Flores Produced by PM Vargas, Alfred Vargas, Riza Montelibano, Mai Montelibano and Ellen Ilagan   Supremo (2012) Full Trailer Director: Richard V. Somes Starring: Alfred Vargas Mon Confiado Hermie Concepcion Nicco Manalo Alex Vincent Medina Nica Naval Edmon Romawag Shielbert Manuel Lehner Mendoza Jeff Fernandez Banjo Romero Mano Respall Alex Cabodil Production Manager: Darryl De la Cruz Sound Engineer Jedd Chriss Dumaguina Musical Scorer: Von De Guzman Editors: Carlo Francisco Manatad + Joris Fernandez Director of Photography: Alex Espartero Production Designers: Erin John Martir + Adrian Torres Screenplay: Jimmy Flores Associate Producer: Ellen Ilagan + Maimai Montelibano Line Producer: Riza Montelibano Executive Producers: PM Vargas + Alfred Vargas   http://www.facebook.com/pages/Supremo/407515249292352     … [Read more...]

BOOK: Color Photos Of America’s New Possessions by F. Tennyson Neely (1899)

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Color Photos Of America's New Possessions by  F. Tennyson Neely (1899) Collection of color photographs of the Spanish - American War military actions in the Philippines. Many of these photographs are not found in any other books!   Read it online at The Library of Congress . http://www.archive.org/stream/neelyscolorphoto00newy#page/n0/mode/2up http://www.archive.org/details/neelyscolorphoto00newy       … [Read more...]

BOOK: FOUNDERS OF FREEDOM, The History of the Three Philippine Constitutions (1971)

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Description: The book tells the history of struggle for freedom in the Philippines, from the first massive filipino alliance against Spain during the 16th century, to the Philippine Revolution, to the founding of the Philippine republic, and the succession of Presidents up to the time of President Marcos. Its a book that conditions citizens to the framing of the new Constitution in 1972. In the introduction reads: "Seventy-Three years ago, on 12 June 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Revolution, declared the independence of the Philippines at Kawit". Writers: Vicente Albano Pacis, Dr. Jose M. Aruego, Esteban De Ocampo, Carlos Quirino, Jose Luna Castro, Mauro Garcia, Isidro L. Retizos, D.H. Soriano Publisher: Elena Hollman Roces Foundation, Inc         … [Read more...]

BOOK: Memories of the Philippine Revolution Apolinario Mabini (1963)

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Memories of the Philippine Revolution  Apolinario Mabini (1963) Description: Apolinario Mabini's biographical work about the Philippine Revolution of 1896. Text in Spanish. Publisher: Bureau of Public Printing-Manila. 1963 Author: Apolinario Mabini Pages: 254 … [Read more...]

BOOK: UNCLE SAM’S BOYS In PHILIPPINES by By H.Irving Hancock (1912)

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  The Project Gutenberg eBook, Uncle Sam's Boys in the Philippines, by H. Irving Hancock This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Uncle Sam's Boys in the Philippines or, Following the Flag against the Moros Author: H. Irving Hancock Release Date: November 11, 2007 [eBook #23447] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK UNCLE SAM'S BOYS IN THE PHILIPPINES***   E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net)     Uncle Sam's Boys in the Philippines OR Following the Flag against the Moros By H. IRVING HANCOCK Author of Uncle Sam's Boys in the Ranks, Uncle Sam's Boys on Field Duty, Uncle Sam's Boys as Sergeants, The Motor Boat Club Series, The Grammar School Boys Series, The High School Boys Series, The West Point Series, The Annapolis Series, The Young Engineers Series, etc., etc. Illustrated     PHILADELPHIA HENRY ALTEMUS COMPANY Copyright, 1912, by Howard E. Altemus Frontispiece. CONTENTS Uncle Sam's Boys in the Philippines The Filipino Dandy A Meeting at the Nipa Barracks Plotters Travel With the Flag Cerverra's Innocent Shop Enough to "Rattle" the Victim Life Hangs on a Word The Kind of Man Who Masters Others The Right Man in the Guard House News Comes of the Uprising The Insult to the Flag In the First Brush With Moros The Brown Men at Bay—For How Long? A Tale of Moro Blackmail The Call for Midnight Courage In a Cinch With Cold Steel Datto Hakkut Makes a New Move "Long" Green and Kelly Have Innings Sentry Miggs Makes a Gruesome Find Hal Turns the Gatling Gun Loose Corporal Duxbridge's Mistake Scouting in Deadly Earnest Playing Goo-Goo in a Grim Game Dooming the Datto Conclusion Uncle Sam's Boys in the Philippines CHAPTER I THE FILIPINO DANDY "We've solved one problem at last, Noll," declared Sergeant Hal Overton seriously. "Only one?" demanded young Sergeant Terry quizzically. But Hal, becoming only the more serious, went on earnestly: "At last we begin to understand just what the 'lure of the Orient' means! For years I've been reading about the Orient, and the way that this part of the world charms men and holds them. Now, that we are here on the spot, I begin to understand it all. Noll, my boy, the East is a great and wonderful place! I wonder if I shall ever tire of it?" "I believe I could tire of it in time," remarked Sergeant Terry, of the Thirty-fourth United States Infantry. "But you haven't yet," insisted Sergeant Hal. "What, when we've been here only three days? Naturally I haven't. And, besides, all we've seen is Manila, and certainly Manila can't be more than one little jumping-off corner of the Orient that you're so enthusiastic about." "You're wild about the Far East, too—even the one little corner of it that we've seen," retorted Sergeant Hal. "Don't be a grouch or a knocker, Noll. Own up that you wouldn't start for the United States to-morrow if you were offered double pay back in the home country." "No; I wouldn't," confessed Sergeant Terry. "I want to see a lot more of these Philippine Islands before I go back to our own land." "Just halt where you are and look about you," went on enthusiastic Sergeant Hal. "Try to picture this scene as Broadway, in New York." "Or Main Street in our own little home city," laughed Sergeant Terry quietly. Certainly the scene was entirely different from anything that the two young Army boys had ever seen before. They stood on the Escolta, which is the main business thoroughfare of New Manila, as that portion of the Philippine capital north of the little river is called. South of the river is Old Manila, the walled city of the old days of the Spanish conquerors. South of the walled city lie two rather fashionable residence suburbs, Ermita and Malate. But the Thirty-fourth was temporarily stationed in big nipa barracks at Malate. It was in the newer Manila that the two boyish young sergeants found their greatest interest. It was a busy, bustling scene. There is nothing exactly like the Escolta in any other part of the world. The whole of this crooked, winding thoroughfare seemed alive with horses and people—with the horses in more than goodly proportion. Along the Escolta are the principal wholesale and retail houses of the city. Here is the post office, there the "Botanica" or principal drug store, operating under English capital and a Spanish name; down near the water front is the Hotel de Paris, a place famous for the good dinners of the East. Further up the Escolta, just around a slight bend, is the Oriente Hotel, the stopping … [Read more...]

Book: 1898, Our New Possessions – Philippine Islands, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Hawaiian Islands by Trumbull White

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  Our New Possessions Four Volumes in One…Philippine Islands, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Hawaiian Islands by Trumbull White, Illustrated by numerous photos, First printing Edition (presumed,) 1898, A. B. Kuhlman Press Company Book Publisher Publishing, LCCC 00-0000,  9 X 7 inches, pp 676, Hard cover, Contents Vintage history book on the newest lands to the United States in 1898.  These lands were to have very different futures as two remain key elements of the US while two others are independent once again.  The real value and beauty of this book is in the huge number of vintage images and drawings from all four “possessions.” … [Read more...]

Book: Photographs from Harper’s History of the War in the Philippines

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  Harper's History of the War in the Philippines Edited by Marrion Wilcox Harper and Brothers, New York, 1900, first edition. Light brown cloth hard covers with red leather label on spine, gilt titles, large folio, 472pp, profusely illustrated with b&w photographs, many full-page color plates (chromolithographs), fold-out plate, maps A detailed and richly illustrated account of the background history and military campaigns of the War. The volume includes a listing of all the US soldiers by rank. Among the color  plates is an illustration  General Lawton by Frederic Remington.                           … [Read more...]

Colt Artillery Model 1873 Single Action Army(SAA) .45 – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  Colt Artillery Model 1873 Single Action Army(SAA) .45 - Barrel Length: 7" and 5½" - Weight: 2.3 lbs - Cartridge Caliber: .45 Long Colt (255 grain) - Muzzle Velocity: 830 fps - Service: 1873–1902 The Colt SAA .45 became the side arm issued to US Army in 1873. The Colt .45 revolver was considered cutting edge technology at the time. The large caliber was believed to quell conflicts and bring peace. It became known as the "Peacemaker". It would be the most popular revolver of the old west. Today it remains synonymous with the Cowboys of the western frontier. The original Colt SAA issued to troops had the 7" barrel. By early 1890s the US Army decided to downsize their force as well as find ways to save on spending. By 1893 many of the Colt SAA revolvers were replaced by the Colt DA .38. It should be noted the phasing out of the Colt SAA .45 was a long process and many still found use as the side arm of select few units. By 1898 the Colt revolvers were modified with a shorter 5½" and issued first to Artillery units. The altered Colts with 5½" barrels would be known and later called the "Artillery Model". The most popular unit to carry the old Colt .45 SAA would be Teddy Roosevelts Rough Riders during the Cuban Campaign. The Colt SAA .45 would truly shine just as the the Philippine-American War was coming to a close and the beginning of the pacification through out the Philippines; most particularly during patrols and expeditions in the Visayan and Moroland(Mindanao) regions. The Colt .38 revolvers provided to be insufficient in stopping and dropping frantically charged assailants. Few regulars and volunteers still carried the older Colt SAA .45 and noted the significant stopping and knock-down power the revolver had over the newer .38s. Officers soon requested an immediate re-issue of old Colt SAA .45s to the Philippine Islands. Because the Colt SAA .45 would still be used in service all the way up to the end of the Philippine-American War, it would be safe to say the Colt .45 was never truly retired in 1893. By the end of 1902 the Philippine-American War closed and the US volunteers began mustering out of service. As US troop presences began to drop in the Philippines, Tafts Philippine Commission would establish a native police force known as the Philippine Constabulary to fill the roll of bring law and order through out the islands. The Philippine Constabulary would be issued the old 1878 Colt Alaskan .45 revolver, which would be re-designated the Colt 1902 Philippine Model. Resulting from the effective use of the Colt Single Action Army .45. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg … [Read more...]

Colt 1902 Philippine Model Double Action .45LC – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  Colt 1902 Philippine Model Double Action .45LC Originally issued as: 1878 Colt Alaskan Revolver Barrel length: 6" Capacity: 6 round swing out cylinder Cartridge Caliber: .45 LC(Long Colt) Weight: 2 lbs Service: 1878-1892; 1902-1908 Adopted earlier in 1878 by US soldiers serving in Alaska, the pistol was nearly phased out by the new issued .38 revolvers. At the end of the Philippine-American War the Philippine Scouts, along with US military units, and the Philippine Constabulary(Native Police force) began expeditions and patrolling through Moroland and Visayan territory. There they found new adversaries waiting and lurking in the dense terrain of both regions, namely the Tad-Tad/Pulajanes of Samar/Leyte and the Juramentado Moros. The native police force were poorly equipped with Springfield Trapdoor "single shot" rifles, and a ill performing .38 Colt revolver side arm. Both proved to have insufficient stopping power of a hard charging swarm of combatants. A shot assailant does not necessarily make them incapacitated. Sword welding Moros and Filipinos were known to charge through heavy gun fire and still be capable of slashing and killing. Requests were quickly made for older issued .45 Colt revolvers, and the US government answered by reissuing out the older 1878 Alaskan Colt Revolvers to the Philippine Constabulary, re-designating them the 1902 Philippine Model. The .45 revolvers performed up to standard and as expected. The stopping power of the .45 cartridge against Filipinos during this era would result in the US government requesting their newly manufactured and issued sidearm to be chambered in .45. The end result is the M1911 Colt automatic pistol chambered in the newly engineered .45ACP cartridge. The Model 1902 revolver is unique by the enlarged trigger guard. At the time the new smokeless powder cartridges also required new primers, which took more effort to ignite; and with it required a stronger trigger spring. The trigger pull became immense. Colt modified the trigger group by use of the enlarged trigger guard, which gave more leverage to pull the trigger. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg   … [Read more...]

895 Gatling Gun, 1873-1906 – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  895 Gatling Gun Weight: 395 lbs Barrel length: 32" (6-10 barrels) Cartridge Caliber: .30 cal and 45-70 Range: +1000 yards Rate fire: 600-1000 per minute Service: 1873-1906 Invented by American Dr. Richard Jordan Gatling(neighbor of the Colt family in Hartford Connecticut), the Gatling gun is considered by many to be the first machine gun. It was first introduced during the Civil War in 1865. Several different models existed through out its advent. 6 to 10 barrels are positioned in a cylinder. Each barrel having its own chamber and firing mechanism. Ammunition is placed in a magazine canister and attached on top of the cylinder breech. A crank would be operated by the gunner, which would rotate the cylinder and barrels. The rotation loaded, cocked, fired, and ejected spent cartridges. The Gatling gun initially suffered many issues, as nearly all were hand built at the time and many parts were not uniform. By the 1890s, the Gatling gun had significantly improved, and in 1895 the US Army adopted the weapon. The Gatling gun saw much action during the Spanish American War. It gained fame in Cuba giving support fire while Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders assaulted San Juan Hill. Several examples were later shipped and used in the war in the Philippines. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg   … [Read more...]

Spanish Mauser Model 1893 Bolt Action Rifle – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  Spanish Mauser Model 1893 Bolt Action Rifle - Manufactured: Loewe Berlin Germany - Weight: 8.6lb - Barrel length: 29" - Cartridge Caliber: 7mm (7x57mm) Smokeless - Service in Spanish Army: Since 1893 The 1893 Mauser bolt action rifle is considered by many to be one of the most revolutionary firearms in history and way ahead of it's era. Accuracy of the rifle being unmatched during its time. The Mauser rifle saw little improvements to its design through out its service. It would be used by nearly all countries up to and during the second world war. Even by todays standards it is considered extremely accurate next to modern firearms. Nearly all bolt action rifles produced today take some design from the Mauser rifle. The 7mm round created a distinctive sound when whizzing by, the American soldiers called it the "Spanish Hornet". Spain contracted Mauser in Loewe Berlin to produce these rifles for their entire military in the early 1890s. The Mauser were to replace outdated rifles like the Remington Rolling Block. The Mauser later shined and gained an infamous reputation during the Spanish American War at Cuba. The Battle of San Juan Hill would be the most famous battle of the Spanish-American War, as well as being the turning point of the war. 800 Spanish soldiers held the hill against an opposing force made up of nearly 20,000 armed men. 15,000 being made of US Soldiers armed with Krags and Springfield Trapdoor rifles. Although the fight lasted only 2 days and the US gained control of the hill, the end result was near disastrous for the Americans. 200 US soldiers lay dead with 1,100 being wounded. The Spanish resulted in only 58 deaths and 170 wounded. The Spanish Mauser rifle was quickly noted by the US military and the US government for its lethality and superiority in this one battle. At the same time in the Philippines, the 2nd phase of the Revolution was in motion and the Philippine Army trampled across the Spanish troops through out the islands. The Filipinos began to equip themselves with captured and left over Spanish firearms. They would also account for the superior performance in the Mauser. Each battalion would have a separate special unit of expert riflemen/snipers(known as Tiradors); and all were to be armed with nothing but Mauser rifles. The most popular Filipino riflemen unit being under the command of General Geronimo, whom he would name "Tiradores de la Muerte"(Shooters of Death). After the outbreak of the Philippine American War, the Tiradores de la Muerte would gain fame in Dec 1899 when the unit defended the town of San Mateo against 800 US troops under the command of Gen Henry Lawton. On the morning of the battle Lawton walked along the firing line in open field to gain a better view of his troops and the opposing force. The troops noted the distinct firing sound of the Mauser rifles and advised the general to take cover. The general ignored their warning and at that instant was struck in the chest by round fired by one of the tiradores Mauser rifle. Gen Lawton would die with in a few minutes. The rifle shot coming from a distance of 300 yards during a storm with rain. Also during the Spanish American War in the Philippines, in the town of Baler a small detachment of 50 Spanish soldiers barracked themselves inside the towns fortified church. Lt Col Teodorico Luna(relative of Juan and Antonio Luna) would lead the attack against the Spaniards and surrounded the church. The Spaniards would hold this position from July 1898 to June 1899. During their stand, the Spanish American War would end, America would purchase the islands, and Philippine American War was in full swing. The Spanish troops finally surrendered to the Philippine Army and were received as friendly allies. The dominance of the Mauser rifle was accredited for the 11 month long stand off. Due to the superiority and success of the Mauser rifle over the newly issued Krag rifles through out the Spanish American War, the US Government took captured Mausers and gave them to Springfield Armory for their own research and development. The US Government would give Springfield Armory the order to build their own Mauser type rifle. In 1900 Springfield had a prototype rifle with similar characteristics of both the Mauser and Krag rifle. The US Government approved the design, and the end result is the M1903 Springfield bolt action rifle in 30-06. It should be noted that Springfield Armory at the time was under government control, but in itself was still a separate entity as a firearms manufacturer. The US Government in a way did not purposely copy the designs, but being Springfield Armory fell under the control of the US Government, Mauser took action against the US government and not Springfield Armory. Both Mauser and the US Government realized the similar features and agreed it infringed on Mausers design patents. The US Government … [Read more...]

U.S. Army: 11 Infantry Regiment. Insignia with Philippine Bolo and Kampilan Swords (March 28 1923) – By The Institute of Heraldry

U.S. Army: 11 Infantry Regiment By The Institute of Heraldry Distinctive Unit Insignia   Description A silver color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Azure, Satanta's arrow in fess Argent between in chief a castle Or in base a kampilan and bolo in saltire of the second hilted of the third. On a chief embattled of the second a cross Gules. Symbolism The symbolism is that of the coat of arms. Background The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 28 Mar 1923. Coat Of Arms   Blazon Shield Azure, Satanta's arrow in fess Argent between in chief a castle Or in base a kampilan and bolo in saltire of the second hilted of the third. On a chief embattled of the second a cross Gules. Crest On a wreath of the colors a fusil Gules bearing a cross patée Argent charged with an acorn of the first. Motto SEMPER FIDELIS (Always Faithful). Symbolism The shield is blue for infantry. Service in the Spanish War is shown by the castle and in the Indian Wars by Satanta's "arrow." The most important Indian campaign of this regiment was against the Kiowas, Comanches and Cheyenne in 1874. Satanta was a noted Kiowa chief who died just previous to this campaign. His "arrow" was really a spear with feathers on the end and a handle. The kampilan and bolo represent engagements against the Moros of Mindanao and the Filipinos of the Visayas. Service in the World War is shown by the chief bearing the cross of the ancient Lords of Dun to commemorate the crossing of the Meuse at Dun. The embattled partition represents the siege of Chattanooga in 1863. The crest consists of the Civil War badges of the 1st Division, 14th Army Corps and 2d Division, 5th Army Corps, and the World War 5th Division shoulder sleeve insignia. Background The coat of arms was approved on 12 Oct 1920.   … [Read more...]

Apolinario ‘Lumpo’ Mabini y Maranan – Conscience of the Philippine Revolution (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903)

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Apolinario Mabini Hero of the Philippine Revolution Conscience  of the Philippine Revolution the Sublime Paralytic key adviser of Emilio Aguinaldo proposed the first constitution of the Philippine Republic born July 22, 1864 Barrio Talaga, Tanawan Batangas to Inocencio Mabini, Dionisia Maranan died May 13, 1903 It was immediately before the proclamation of independence that a young man was brought before Aguinaldo as his adviser. He was Apolinario Mabini. Born of very poor parents, Inocencio Mabini and Dionisia Maranan, in Talaga, Tanawan, Batangas. Mabini studied in a school in Tanawan, then conducted by a certain Simplicio Avelino. Much later, he transferred to a school conducted by the famous pedagogue, Father Valerio Malabanan. He continued his studies at the San Juan de Letran and at the University of Sto. Tomas where he received his law degree in 1894. His dream to defend the poor led him to forsake the priesthood, which his mother wanted him to take. Early in 1896, he contracted an illness, probably infantile paralysis, that led to the paralysis of his lower limbs. When the revolution broke out the same year, the Spanish authorities, suspecting that he was somehow involved in the disturbance, arrested him. The fact, however, that he could not move his lower limbs showed the Spaniards that they had made a mistake. He was released and sent to the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Mabini, it must be noted, was not entirely free from nationalistic association, for he was a member of Rizal's La Liga Filipina and worked secretly for the introduction of reforms in the administration of government. In 1898, while vacationing in Los Baños, Aguinaldo sent for him. It took hundreds of men taking turns at carrying the hammock he was in to bring Mabini to Kawit. Aguinaldo, upon seeing Mabini's physical condition, thought that he must have made a mistake in calling for him to help him in his work. What could a man in such a condition do to help him? But when Mabini spoke, Aguinaldo's doubts vanished. There was firmness in the sick man's voice, and Aguinaldo decided to make him his trusted adviser. From then on, it was Mabini who stood behind Aguinaldo. Envious enemies called him the "Dark Chamber of the President", but his admirers called him the "Brains of the Revolution". History of the Filipino People. Teodoro A. Agoncillo   --- Apolinario Mabini Born of a poor family, Apolinario Mabini was always studious. He was always sad and silent and liked to sit alone to meditate. Mabini studied at San Juan de Letran where he got his Bachelor of Arts degree and Professor of Latin. He also finished Law. He was a spokesman of the Congress, and a notary public. In early 1896, he contracted a severe fever which paralyzed him for the rest of his life. He was later called the Sublime Paralytic. Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898, when he became the chief adviser of Gen. Aguinaldo during the revolution. He drafted decrees and proposed a constitution for the Philippine Republic. He made the plans for the revolutionary government. In 1899, he was captured by the Americans but was later set free. In 1901, he was exiled to Guam but returned to the Philippines in 1903 after agreeing to take an oath of allegiance to the US. He took his oath on February 26, 1903 before the Collector of Customs. On May 13, 1903, he died of cholera in Manila. Excerpts from Talambuhay ng mga Bayani by Rene Alba   --- Apolinario 'Lumpo' Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) Apolinario 'Lumpo' Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899. In Philippine history texts, he is often referred to as "the Sublime Paralytic", and as "the Brains of the Revolution." To his enemies and detractors, he is referred to as the "Dark Chamber of the President."   Early life of Apolinario Mabini Mabini was born on July 23, 1864 in Barangay Talaga in Tanauan, Batangas. He was the second of eight children of Dionisia Maranan, a vendor in the Tanauan market, and Inocencio Mabini, an unlettered peasant. Mabini began informal studies under his maternal grandfather, who was the village teacher. Because he demonstrated uncommon intelligence, he was transferred to a regular school owned by Simplicio Avelino, where he worked as a houseboy, and also took odd jobs from a local tailor - all in exchange for free board and lodging. He later transferred to a school conducted by the Fray Valerio Malabanan, whose fame as an educator merited a mention in José Rizal's novel El Filibusterismo. In 1881 Mabini received a scholarship to go to the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila. An anecdote about his stay there says that a professor there decided to pick on him because his shabby … [Read more...]

U.S. Army: 15th Cavalry Regiment. Insignia with Philippine Kris and Kampilan Sword. (6 April 1935) – By The Institute of Heraldry

15th Cavalry Regiment   Distinctive Unit Insignia   Description A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Per fess Gules and Argent in chief a lion passant Or and in base a kris and kampilan saltirewise Sable fimbriated Or. Attached below and to the left of the shield a Gold turning scroll inscribed "TOUS POUR UN" in Red letters. And attached below and to the right of the shield a Gold turning scroll inscribed "UN POUR TOUS" in Red letters. Symbolism The red and white divided shield represents the old Cavalry guidon. The regiment saw good fighting in the Philippines as indicated by the crossed kris and kampilan of the Moro and Lake Lanao campaigns. In the war with Germany, the regiment was in France in the vicinity of Bordeaux and the golden lion is taken from the arms of that city. The translation of the motto "All for one, one for all" is indicative of the spirit , which has made the regiment. Background The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 15th Cavalry on 6 April 1935. It was redesignated for the 15th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized on 10 November 1944. It was redesignated on 21 January 1948, for the 15th Constabulary Squadron. The insignia was redesignated for the 15th Cavalry on 28 November 1958. It was redesignated for the 15th Armor on 13 November 1963. The distinctive unit insignia was redesignated for the 15th Cavalry on 2 August 1968. The insignia was amended to correct the description on 4 October 2002. Coat Of Arms   Blazon Shield Per fess Gules and Argent in chief a lion passant Or and in base a kris and kampilan saltirewise of the first hilted Sable. Crest On a wreath of the colors Argent and Gules a setting sun behind "the Golden Gate" all Proper. Motto TOUS POUR UN, UN POUR TOUS (All For One, One For All). Symbolism Shield The red and white divided shield represents the old Cavalry guidon. The regiment saw good fighting in the Philippines as indicated by the crossed kris and kampilan of the Moro and Lake Lanao campaigns. In the war with Germany, the regiment was in France in the vicinity of Bordeaux and the golden lion is taken from the arms of that city. The translation of the motto "All for one, one for all" is indicative of the spirit , which has made the regiment. Crest The "Golden Gate" is the portico called "through the portals of the past" which is now in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. It was one of the few things left standing after the fire of 1906 and was removed and reerected as noted. The birthplace of the regiment is indicated by the crest. Background The coat of arms was originally approved for the 15th Cavalry on 2 November 1921. It was redesignated for the 15th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron on 10 November 1944. It was redesignated on 21 January 1948, for the 15th Constabulary Squadron. The insignia was redesignated for the 15th Cavalry on 28 November 1958. It was redesignated for the 15th Armor on 13 November 1963. The coat of arms was redesignated for the 15th Cavalry on 2 August 1968.   … [Read more...]

United States Military Philippines Command. Philippines Department Insignia. (July 8, 1922) – By The Institute of Heraldry

Philippine Command By The Institute of Heraldry   Shoulder Sleeve Insignia   Description On a blue oval 2 1/2 inches in length by 2 inches in width a white sea lion brandishing a sword in its right paw. Symbolism The sea lion is from the coat of arms of Spain (Aragon) and suggest the Spanish heritage as well as the maritime nature of the area where the command was operational. Background The insignia was originally approved for the Philippines Department on July 8, 1922. It was redesignated for the Philippines-Ryukyus Command on August 14, 1947 and redesignated for the Philippines Command on August 1, 1949. (TIOH Drawing Number A-1-54) … [Read more...]

U.S. Army: 11 Infantry Regiment. Insignia with Philippine Bolo and Kampilan Swords (March 28 1923) – By The Institute of Heraldry

U.S. Army: 11 Infantry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia   Description A silver color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Azure, Satanta's arrow in fess Argent between in chief a castle Or in base a kampilan and bolo in saltire of the second hilted of the third. On a chief embattled of the second a cross Gules. Symbolism The symbolism is that of the coat of arms. Background The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 28 Mar 1923. Coat Of Arms   Blazon Shield Azure, Satanta's arrow in fess Argent between in chief a castle Or in base a kampilan and bolo in saltire of the second hilted of the third. On a chief embattled of the second a cross Gules. Crest On a wreath of the colors a fusil Gules bearing a cross patée Argent charged with an acorn of the first. Motto SEMPER FIDELIS (Always Faithful). Symbolism The shield is blue for infantry. Service in the Spanish War is shown by the castle and in the Indian Wars by Satanta's "arrow." The most important Indian campaign of this regiment was against the Kiowas, Comanches and Cheyenne in 1874. Satanta was a noted Kiowa chief who died just previous to this campaign. His "arrow" was really a spear with feathers on the end and a handle. The kampilan and bolo represent engagements against the Moros of Mindanao and the Filipinos of the Visayas. Service in the World War is shown by the chief bearing the cross of the ancient Lords of Dun to commemorate the crossing of the Meuse at Dun. The embattled partition represents the siege of Chattanooga in 1863. The crest consists of the Civil War badges of the 1st Division, 14th Army Corps and 2d Division, 5th Army Corps, and the World War 5th Division shoulder sleeve insignia. Background The coat of arms was approved on 12 Oct 1920.   … [Read more...]

Film: Amigo (2010)

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Movie: Amigo (2010) Amigo is a 2010 American drama film written and directed by John Sayles. The film takes place in the Philippines in 1900 during the Philippine–American War. It is one of only a small handful of films directed by an American to address the war. Plot Amigo centers on Rafael Dacanay, cabeza of the barrio of San Isidro in a rice-growing area of Luzon. His brother Simón, head of the local guerilla band, has forced the surrender of the Spanish guardia civil outpost and charged Rafael with the task of imprisoning the guardia Captain and the barrio’s Spanish friar, Padre Hidalgo, in the name of the revolutionary government. But when the American troops chasing General Aguinaldo arrive, the Spanish officer and Padre Hidalgo are freed, and a garrison under the command of Lieutenant Ike Compton is left to ‘protect’ the barrio. The American occupation policy now changes from ‘hearts and minds’ to ‘concentration’ (what was called ‘hamletting’ during the Vietnam war) and Rafael has to answer to both the Americans and the Filipino patriots, with deadly consequences. Cast •    Chris Cooper as Col. Hardacre •    Garret Dillahunt as Lt. Compton •    DJ Qualls as Zeke •    Yul Vàzquez as Padre Hidalgo •    Joel Torre as Rafael •    Lucas Neff as Shanker •    James Parks as Sgt. Runnels •    Dane DeHaan as Gill •    Stephen Taylor as Pvt. Bates •    Rio Locsin as Corazon •    Jemi Paretas as Zuniga •    Bill Tangradi as Dutch •    Bembol Roco as Policarpio •    Ronnie Lazaro as Simon •    Irma Adlawan as Josefa Press Cinematical reports that the film was once titled Baryo, and that the idea for it came from a yet-to-be-published novel Some Time in the Sun, detailing U.S. imperialism in the Philippines. The book will actually be called A Moment in the Sun, though the unrealized screenplay which inspired it was called Some Time in the Sun. Distribution Amigo will show on September 14 at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival. It will also screen at the San Sebastián International Film Festival and the Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival. In North America, the film will be released on August 20, 2011 by Variance Films. From Wikipedia … [Read more...]

Katipunan General Gregorio del Pilar, (1875-1899) – One of the youngest Generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces

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Gregorio del Pilar November 14, 1875(1875-11-14) – December 2, 1899(1899-12-02) (aged 24) Nickname:"Goyong", "Boy General" Place of birth: Bulacan, Bulacan, Philippines Place of death: Tirad Pass, Ilocos Sur, Philippines Allegiance:  First Philippine Republic Service/Branch: Philippine Revolutionary Army Battles/Wars: Philippine Revolution, Philippine-American War Battle of Quingua, Battle of Tirad Pass Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio (November 14, 1875—December 2, 1899) was one of the youngest generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He is most known for his role and death at the Battle of Tirad Pass. Because of his youth, he was called the "Boy General." Early life and education Born on November 14, 1875 to Fernando H. del Pilar and Felipa Sempio of Bulacan, Bulacan, del Pilar was the nephew of propagandist Marcelo H. del Pilar and Toribio H. del Pilar, who was exiled to Guam for his involvement in the 1872 Cavite Mutiny. "Goryo", as he was casually known, studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, where he received his Bachelor’s degree in 1896, at the age of 20. When the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule broke out in August under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio, del Pilar joined the insurgency. He distinguished himself as a field commander while fighting Spanish garrisons in Bulacan. Military career He later joined General Emilio Aguinaldo, who had gained control of the movement, in Hong Kong after the truce at Biak-na-Bato. During the Spanish American War, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines and established the government of the First Philippine Republic. He appointed del Pilar section leader of the revolutionary forces in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija. On June 1, del Pilar landed in Bulacan with rifles purchased in Hong Kong, quickly laying siege on the Spanish forces in the province. When the Spaniards surrendered to del Pilar, he brought his men to Caloocan, Manila to support the other troops battling the Spaniards there. When the Philippine-American War broke-out on February 1899, del Pilar led his troops to a short victory over Major Franklin Bell in the first phase of the Battle of Quingua on April 23, 1899, in which his forces repelled a cavalry charge and killed the highly respected Colonel John M. Stotsenburg,[1] after whom Clark Air Base was originally named (Fort Stotsenburg).[2] Death Gregorio del Pilar circa 1899 Main article: Battle of Tirad Pass On December 2, 1899, del Pilar led 60 Filipino soldiers of Aguinaldo's rear guard in the Battle of Tirad Pass against the "Texas Regiment", the 33rd Infantry Regiment of the United States led by Peyton C. March. A delaying action to cover Aguinaldo's retreat, the five-hour standoff resulted in Del Pilar's death due to a shot to the neck (at the height or end of the fighting, depending on eyewitness accounts). Del Pilar's body was later despoiled and looted by the victorious American soldiers. Del Pilar's body lay unburied for days, exposed to the elements. While retracing the trail, an American officer, Lt. Dennis P. Quinlan, gave the body a traditional U.S. military burial. Upon del Pilar's tombstone, Quinlan inscribed, "An Officer and a Gentleman". In 1930, del Pilar's body was exhumed and was identified by the gold tooth and braces he had installed while in exile in Hong Kong. Documentary His life was shown in the Philippine TV news show Case Unclosed as its 13th episode. Memorials * Fort Del Pilar, home of the Philippine Military Academy in Baguio, is named after him. * In 1944, the Japanese-sponsored Philippine republic of President Jose P. Laurel issued the Tirad Pass Medal commemorating the battle and del Pilar's sacrifice. A bust of General del Pilar occupies the center of the obverse (front) side of the medal. The Tirad Pass Medal was the only award issued to recognize service to the Laurel government during the Japanese occupation. * In 1955, the municipality of Concepcion in Ilocos Sur was renamed in his honor. * In 1995, his life was featured in the movie "Tirad Pass: The Last Stand of General Gregorio del Pilar" starring Romnick Sarmienta. From Wikipedia … [Read more...]

Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot? by Paul Flores

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Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot? by Paul Flores © 1996 by Paul Flores and PHGLA All rights reserved Contrary to popular belief, Philippine resistance to American rule did not end with the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901. There were numerous resistance forces fighting for Philippine independence until the year 1910. One of these forces was led by Macario Sakay who established the Tagalog Republic. Born in 1870 in Tondo, Macario Sakay had a working-class background. He started out as an apprentice in a calesa manufacturing shop. He was also a tailor, a barber, and an actor in comedias and moro-moros. His participation in Tagalog dramas exposed him to the world of love, courage, and discipline. In 1894, Sakay joined the Dapitan, Manila branch of the Katipunan. Due to his exemplary work, he became head of the branch. His nightly activities as an actor in comedias camouflaged his involvement with the Katipunan. Sakay assisted in the operation of the Katipunan press. During the early days of the Katipunan, Sakay worked with Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto. He fought side by side with Bonifacio in the hills of Morong (now Rizal) Province. During the initial stages of the Filipino-American war, Sakay was jailed for his seditious activities. He had been caught forming several Katipunan chapters and preaching its ideals from town to town. Republika ng Katagalugan Released in 1902 as the result of an amnesty, Sakay established with a group of other Katipuneros the Republika ng Katagalugan in the mountains of Southern Luzon. Sakay held the presidency and was also called "Generalisimo." Francisco Carreon was the vice-president and handled Sakay's correspondence. Julian Montalan was the overall supervisor for military operations. Cornelio Felizardo took charge of the northern part of Cavite (Pasay-Bacoor) while Lucio de Vega controlled the rest of the province. Aniceto Oruga operated in the lake towns of Batangas. Leon Villafuerte headed Bulacan while Benito Natividad patrolled Tanauan, Batangas. In April 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto stating that the Filipinos had a fundamental right to fight for Philippine independence. The American occupiers had already made support for independence, even through words, a crime. Sakay also declared that they were true revolutionaries and had their own constitution and an established government. They also had a flag. There were several other revolutionary manifestos written by the Tagalog Republic that would tend to disprove the U.S. government's claim that they were bandits. The Tagalog Republic's constitution was largely based on the early Katipunan creed of Bonifacio. For Sakay, the new Katipunan was simply a continuation of Bonifacio's revolutionary struggle for independence. Guerilla tactics In late 1904, Sakay and his men took military offensive against the enemy. They were successful in seizing ammunition and firearms in their raids in Cavite and Batangas. Disguised in Philippine Constabulary uniforms, they captured the U.S. military garrison in Parañaque and ran away with a large amount of revolvers, carbines, and ammunition. Sakay's men often employed these uniforms to confuse the enemy. Using guerrilla warfare, Sakay would look for a chance to use a large number of his men against a small band of the enemy. They usually attacked at night when most of the enemy was looking for relaxation. Sakay severely punished and often liquidated suspected collaborators. The Tagalog Republic enjoyed the support of the Filipino masses in the areas of Morong, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. Lower class people and those living in barrios contributed food, money, and other supplies to the movement. The people also helped Sakay's men evade military checkpoints. They collected information on the whereabouts of the American troops and passed them on. Muchachos working for the Americans stole ammunition and guns for the use of Sakay's men. Unable to suppress the growth of the Tagalog Republic, the Philippine Constabulary and the U.S. Army started to employ "hamletting" or reconcentration in areas where Sakay received strong assistance. The towns of Taal, Tanauan, Santo Tomas, and Nasugbu in the province of Batangas were reconcentrated. This cruel but effective counter-insurgency technique proved disastrous for the Filipino masses. The forced movement and reconcentration of a large number of people caused the outbreak of diseases such as cholera and dysentery. Food was scarce in the camps, resulting in numerous deaths. Meanwhile, search and destroy missions operated relentlessly in an attempt to suppress Sakay's forces. Muslims from Jolo were brought in to fight the guerrillas. Bloodhounds from California were imported to pursue them. The writ of habeas corpus was suspended in Cavite and Batangas to strengthen counter-insurgency efforts. With support cut off, the continuous American military offensive caused the Tagalog Republic to weaken. Fall of … [Read more...]

June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines

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June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines "A nation is born into freedom on the day when such a people, moulded into a nation by a process of cultural evolution and sense of oneness born of common struggle and suffering, announces to the world that it asserts its natural right to liberty and is ready to defend it with blood, life, and honor." The promotion of a healthy nationalism is part of the responsibility of the leaders of newly independent nations. After they lay the foundation for economic development, they promote nationalism and spur the search for national identity. This we can do by honoring our distinguished forebears and notable periods in our history. A step we took in this direction was to change the date for the commemoration of Philippine Independence day. When I was a congressman, I formed the opinion that July 4 was not the proper independence day for Filipinos and should be changed to June 12-- the date General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Filipinos in Kawit, Cavite, in 1898. Having served in the foreign service, I noted that the celebration of a common independence day with the United States on July 4 caused considerable inconvenience. The American celebration dwarfed that of the Philippines. As if to compound the irony, July 4 seemed tantamount to the celebration of Philippine subjection to and dependence on the United States which served to perpetuate unpleasant memories. I felt, too, that July 4 was not inspiring enough for the Filipino youth since it recalled mostly the peaceful independence missions to the United States. The celebration of independence day on June 12, on the other hand, would be a greater inspiration to the youth who would consequently recall the heroes of the revolution against Spain and their acts of sublime heroism and martyrdom. These acts compare favorably with those of the heroes of other nations. In checking the reaction to my plan to shift independence day to June 12, I found that there was virtual unanimity on the desirability of transferring the celebration from July 4. Likewise, there was a preponderant view for choosing June 12 as the proper day. A few suggested January 21, the opening day of the Malolos Congress in 1899, or January 23, when the Malolos Congress, ratifying the independence proclamation of June 12, established a republican system of government. The reason for this view was that the government temporarily by Aguinaldo when he proclaimed independence on June 12 was a dictatorship. There was no difficulty in adhering to June 12, however, because although Aguinaldo Government was a dictatorship in view of the military operations he was then leading, he led in converting it into a republican Government in the Malolos Congress. Moreover, the celebration of independence refers to its proclamation rather than to the final establishment of the government. In the case of America, when independence was proclaimed on July 4, the American Government was still a confederation and it was much later when it finally became a federal government. The historical fact was that the Filipinos proclaimed their independence from foreign rule on June 12. Even the national anthem and the Filipino flag which are essential features in the birth of a nation were played and displayed respectively at the independence proclamation in Kawit. When I became President, I knew that this was the opportunity to take action on what had been in my mind since entering public life. The specific question was when to make the change. The opportunity came when the US House of Representatives rejected the $73 million additional war payment bill on May 9, 1962. There was indignation among the Filipinos. There was a loss of American good will in the Philippines, although this was restored later by the reconsideration of the action of the US lower chamber. At this time, a state visit in the United States had been scheduled for Mrs. Macapagal and me on the initiative and invitation of President John F. Kennedy. Unable to resist the pressure of public opinion, I was constrained to obtain the agreement of Kennedy to defer the state visit for another time. To postpone the state visit, I wrote a letter on May 14, 1962, to Kennedy, which read in part as follows: The feeling of resentment among our people and the attitude of the US Congress negate the atmosphere of good will upon which my state visit to your country was predicated. Our people would never understand how, in the circumstances now obtaining, I could go to the United States and in all honesty affirm that I bear their message of good will. It is with deep regret theredore that I am constrained to ask you to agree to the postponement of my visit to a more auspicious time. On May 28, 1962, Kennedy wrote me explaining the situation on the war damage bill. His letter stated: In the meantime, I must respect your decision that … [Read more...]