U.S. WAR CRIMES IN THE PHILIPPINES, (1898-1899). By World Future Fund

 U.S. WAR CRIMES IN THE PHILIPPINES Courtesy of: http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/war.crimes/US/U.S.Philippines.htm .   The U.S. occupation of the Philippine Islands came about as a result of military operations against the Spanish Empire during the Spanish-American war of 1898-99.  The seizure of the Philippines by the United States, however, was not unplanned.  American eyes had been set on the Philippines since before the outbreak of war.  To many prominent Americans, establishing a colony in the Philippines was a logical extension of the nation's "manifest destiny" to play a leading role on the world stage.  An expanded American presence in Asia was also thought to have significant commercial advantages for the nation, since American companies could then participate directly in large Asian markets. For all the alleged advantages to possessing the Philippines, no thought was given to whether or not native Filipinos would welcome American as opposed to Spanish rule.  The Filipinos were of course never informed of American intentions to stay in the Philippines.  This turned out to be a serious error.  By 1898 Filipinos had already shed a considerable amount of blood since rising up in 1896 to free themselves from Spanish domination.  They would not take kindly to a change in colonial administration from Spain to the United States. The First Philippine Republic and the End of Spanish Rule On May 1, 1898, an American fleet under Dewey sailed into Manila harbor and quickly destroyed a small force of Spanish ships anchored there.  Plans for Dewey to commence offensive operations against the Spanish in the Philippines had originated several months before, in February, when Assistant Secretary for the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, had cabled Dewey to say "Your duty will be to see that the Spanish squadron does not leave the Asiatic coast ... start offensive operations in Philippine Islands."[1] Because a considerable number of Spanish troops remained stationed throughout the Philippines, including a large force in Manila itself, American diplomats urged resistance leader Emilio Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong.  Before journeying to his homeland, Aguinaldo, who was overjoyed at the American declaration of war on Spain, cabled resistance members the following message, which clearly expresses his belief that the Americans had come to liberate his people: "Divine Providence is about to place independence within our reach.  The Americans, not from mercenary motives, but for the sake of humanity and the lamentations of so many persecuted people have considered it opportune to extend their protecting mantle to our beloved country. ... At the present moment an American squadron is preparing to sail to the Philippines. The Americans will attack by sea and prevent any re-enforcements coming from Spain. ... We insurgents must attack by land. ... There where you see the American flag flying, assemble in number; they are our redeemers!"[2] Aguinaldo sent another message several days later expressing the same confidence in American altruism: "Filipinos, the great nation, North America, cradle of liberty and friendly on that account to the liberty of our people ... has come to manifest a protection ... which is disinterested towards us, considering us with sufficient civilization to govern by ourselves this our unhappy land."[3] Energized by the seemingly fortunate turn of events, the Filipinos immediately went on the offensive.  Within weeks Aguinaldo's insurgents had pushed the Spanish back to Manila.  Fighting would continue for another two months, until American forces arrived in enough numbers to complete the defeat of Spanish troops holed up in Manila.  Aguinaldo and his men were ecstatic with their victory and on June 12, 1898 they proclaimed Filipino independence.  The First Philippine Republic had been founded. What the Americans Promised the Filipinos The declaration of a Philippine Republic should not have come as a shock to the Americans.  No American military commander or politician had formally promised the Filipinos independence after the end of fighting, but this is not the impression that motivated Emilio Aguinaldo and his men.  Statements made by several of the participants in these events suggest that by supporting the armed resistance of Filipinos to the Spanish, the United States was de facto guaranteeing the Filipinos their independence.  For example, American Consul Wildman in Hong Kong wrote at the time, "the United States undertook this war [against Spain] for the sole purpose of relieving the Cubans from the cruelties under which they were suffering and not for the love of conquests or the hope of gain.  They are actuated by precisely the same feelings for the Filipinos."[4]  Admiral Dewey emphasized that during the liberation of the islands the Filipinos had cooperated directly … [Read more...]

The Bolomen of the Revolution by Perry Gil S. Mallari , FIGHT Times Editor

An illustration by J. Alexander Mackay published in the book Bamboo Tales by Ira L. Reeves (1900) IMAGE FROM PROJECT GUTENBERG

The Bolomen of the Revolution by Perry Gil S. Mallari , FIGHT Times Editor Arma Blanca is the name of the clandestine regiment of Filipino bolomen active during the revolution against the Spaniards and the Americans. Arma Blanca is a Spanish singular term for a bladed weapon like a sword or a knife. A fairly recent mention of Arma Blanca was made in Orlino Ochosa’s book Bandoleros: The Outlawed Guerillas of the Philippine-American War of 1903 to 1907 (New Day Publications, 1995), and it reads, “Manila’s Arma Blanca that phantom army of bolomen whom General Luna had so much depended upon in his bold attack of Manila at the start of the war with the Americans.” An earlier reference to Arma Blanca can be found in The Philippines Past and Present, by Dean C. Worcester released in 1914. Worcester, who had served as Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine Islands from 1901 to 1913 and was a member of the Philippine Commission from 1900 to 1913, wrote, “The regiment of Armas Blancas had already been raised in Tondo and Binondo. It was in existence there in December, 1898, and may have been originally organized to act against Spain.” The bolo being both a farm implement and a weapon was carried with impunity by Filipinos even in the presence of Spanish and American soldiers. Its blade is often designed heavily weighted towards the tip for ease of chopping hence when used in combat, it can easily severe a limb with a single stroke. The Philippine bolo boasts of a sturdy construction and minor dents on its blade could easily be fixed by a little hammering and filing. In the absence of guns, the Philippine revolutionary forces greatly depended upon the bolo in inflicting casualty on the enemy. A part of Worcester’s book reads, “There is no reason for believing that this is a complete statement of sandatahan [Filipino armed groups] organized in Manila by the end of January, and yet this statement gives a force of at least 6,330 men. General Otis said that this force had been reported to him as being 10,000 men. It is probably true that only a small number of them had rifles; but armed with long knives and daggers they could have inflicted much damage in a sudden night attack in the narrow and badly lighted streets of Manila.” Filipino bolomen even received precise instructions on how to use the blade in conducting raids to snatch the guns of their enemies. A part of Emilio Aguinaldo’s order to the sandatahan was included in Worcester’s book, and it reads, “At the moment of the attack the sandatahan should not attempt to secure rifles from their dead enemies, but shall pursue, slashing right and left with bolos until the Americans surrender, and after there remains no enemy who can injure them, they may take the rifles in one hand and the ammunition in the other.” Continue reading story at: http://www.manilatimes.net/the-bolomen-of-the-revolution/104227/ … [Read more...]

The PBS Film: Crucible of Empire – The Spanish American War

Katipunero

  The PBS Film: Crucible of Empire - The Spanish American War   One hundred years ago, United States celebrated victory in the Spanish-American War. Popular songs and headlines popularized Commodore Dewey's victories at sea and Theodore Roosevelt's ride up Kettle Hill. Although the Spanish-American War sparked unprecedented levels of patriotism and confidence, the defeat of the Spanish also raised new questions about the nation's role as a world power. CRUCIBLE OF EMPIRE: THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR, narrated by award-winning actor Edward James Olmos, examines the colorful characters and historic events surrounding this 100-year-old war and its relevance to the twentieth century. When a declining Spain, beset by rebellion abroad, fell to American expansionism, the United States inherited her colonies and suddenly emerged as a world power. The experience and questions that the Spanish-American War raised about foreign intervention echo throughout the 20th century—as recent events in Kosovo show. Even in its own time, the war with Spain was understood as a turning point in American history. As the twentieth century ends, it is instructive to note the complexities and significance of this very brief war that began this century. In the words of noted historian Walter LaFeber, "The 1898 war literally as well as chronologically ushered in the United States as a major shaper, soon the major shaper, of twentieth-century world politics and commerce." In the process, it also unified a nation still embittered by Civil War divisions; debuted the media in its role as catalyst of U.S. intervention; built up the navy and inspired a re-evaluation of the army; and vastly broadened the powers of the president in wartime and foreign affairs. Clearly, the Spanish-American War was more than the war that ended the nineteenth century; it was also the war that launched the American century. Using original footage and period photographs, newspaper headlines, more than a dozen popular songs from the 1890s, and interviews with some of America's most prominent historians, CRUCIBLE OF EMPIRE tells how issues of race, economy, technology, yellow journalism, and public opinion propelled America into this war. Four 1990s Senators bring to life the 1899 Senate debate on imperialism: Patrick Leahy (VT), Frank Lautenberg (NJ), Paul Simon (IL), and Alan Simpson (WY). The film also features Larry Linville (Major Frank "Ferret Face" Burns of "M*A*S*H") as the voice of Rough Rider Theodore Roosevelt, Laurence Luckinbill as President William McKinley, and Lou Diamond Phillips as Philippine revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo. Continue reading at: http://www.pbs.org/crucible/film.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8g8NpQsmxj4 http://youtu.be/8g8NpQsmxj4 … [Read more...]

Some of the Combat, Massacres,Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands according to the book “The Inhabitants of the Philippines” By Frederic H. Sawyer. 1900

pilipinas inhabintants

Some of the Combat, Massacres, Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands. according to the Book_   The Inhabitants of the Philippines By Frederic H. Sawyer Memb. Inst. C.E., Memb. Inst. N.A. London Sampson Low, Marston and Company Limited St. Dunstan’s House Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.C. 1900     Some of the Combat, Massacres, Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands.   1521. Magellan and several of his followers killed in action by the natives of Mactan, near Cebú; Juan Serrano and many other Spaniards treacherously killed by Hamabar, King of Cebú. 1525. Salazar fights the Portuguese off Mindanao, and suffers great losses in ships and men. 1568. Legaspi’s expedition attacked in Cebú by a Portuguese fleet, which was repulsed. 1570. Legaspi founds the city of Cebú, with the assistance of the Augustinians. 1571. Legaspi founds the city of Manila, with the assistance of the Augustinians. 1572. Juan Salcedo fights the Datto of Zambales, and delivers his subjects from oppression. 1574. Siege of Manila by the Chinese pirate Li-ma-hon with 95 small vessels and 2000 men. The Spaniards and natives repulse the attack. The pirates retire to Pangasinan, and are attacked and destroyed by Juan Salcedo. 1577. War against Mindanao and Joló, parts of which are occupied. Disputes between the missionaries and the military officers who desire to enrich themselves by enslaving the natives, which the former stoutly oppose, desiring to convert them, and grant them exemption from taxes according to the “Leyes de Indias.” They considered the cupidity of the soldiers as the chief obstacle to the conversion of the heathen. The Crown decided in favour of the natives, but they did not derive all the benefits they were entitled to, as the humane laws were not respected by the governors. The Franciscans arrived in Manila. 1580. Expedition sent by Gonzalo Ronquillo to Borneo to assist King Sirela. 1581. Expedition sent by the same to Cagayan to expel a Japanese corsair who had established himself there. The expedition succeeded, but with heavy loss. Expedition against the Igorrotes to get possession of the gold-mines, but without success. The Jesuits arrive in Manila. 1582. Expedition against the Molucas, under Sebastian Ronquillo.[390]An epidemic destroyed two-thirds of the expedition, which returned without accomplishing anything. Great disputes between the encomenderos and the friars in consequence of the ill-treatment of the natives by the former. Dissensions between the Bishop of Manila and the friars who refused to submit to his diocesan visit. Manila burnt down. 1584. Second expedition against the Molucas, with no better luck than the first. Rebellion of the Pampangos and Manila men, assisted by some Mahometans from Borneo. Combat between the English pirate, Thomas Schadesh, and Spanish vessels. Combat between the English adventurer Thomas Cavendish (afterwards Sir Thomas), and Spanish vessels. 1587. The Dominicans arrive in Manila. 1589. Rebellion in Cagayan and other provinces. 1593. Third expedition against the Molucas under Gomez Perez Dasmariñias. He had with him in his galley 80 Spaniards and 250 Chinese galley-slaves. In consequence of contrary winds, his vessel put into a port near Batangas for shelter. In the silence of the night, when the Spaniards were asleep, the galley-slaves arose and killed them all except a Franciscan friar and a secretary. Dasmariñias built the castle of Santiago, and fortified Manila with stone walls, cast a large number of guns, and established the college of Sta. Potenciana. 1596. The galleon which left Manila for Acapulco with rich merchandise, was obliged to enter a Japanese port by stress of weather, and was seized by the Japanese authorities. The crew were barbarously put to death. 1597. Expedition of Luis Perez Dasmariñias against Cambodia, which gained no advantage. 1598. The Audiencia re-established in Manila, and the bishopric raised to an archbishopric. Expedition against Mindanao and Joló, the people from which were committing great devastations in Visayas, taking hundreds of captives. Much fighting, and many killed on both sides, without any definite result. 1599. Destructive earthquake in Manila and neighbourhood. 1600. Great sea combat between four Spanish ships, commanded by Judge Morga, and two Dutch pirates. One of the Dutchmen was taken, but the other escaped. Another destructive earthquake on January 7th, and one less violent, but long, in November. 1603. Conspiracy of Eng-Cang and the Chinese against the Spaniards. The Chinese entrench themselves near Manila; Luis Perez Dasmariñias marches against them with 130 Spaniards. They were all killed and decapitated by the … [Read more...]

BOOK: True Version of the Philippine Revolution By Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy President of the Philippine Republic., Tarlak (Philippine Islands), 23rd September, 1899

Aguinaldo-Emilio

True Version of the Philippine Revolution By Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy President of the Philippine Republic. Tarlak (Philippine Islands), 23rd September, 1899 To All Civilized Nations and Especially to the Great North American Republic I dedicate to you this modest work with a view to informing you respecting the international events which have occurred during the past three years and are still going on in the Philippines, in order that you may be fully acquainted with the facts and be thereby placed in a position to pronounce judgment upon the issue and be satisfied and assured of the Justice which forms the basis and is in fact the foundation of our Cause. I place the simple truth respectfully before and dedicate it to you as an act of homage and as testimony of my admiration for and recognition of the wide knowledge, the brilliant achievements and the great power of other nations, whom I salute, in the name the Philippine nation, with every effusion of my soul. The Author. Page 1 The Revolution of 1896 Spain maintained control of the Philippine Islands for more than three centuries and a half, during which period the tyranny, misconduct and abuses of the Friars and the Civil and Military Administration exhausted the patience of the natives and caused them to make a desperate effort to shake off the unbearable galling yoke on the 26th and 31st August, 1896, then commencing the revolution in the provinces of Manila and Cavite. On these memorable days the people of Balintawak, Santa Mesa, Kalookan, Kawit, Noveleta and San Francisco de Malabon rose against the Spaniards and proclaimed the Independence of the Philippines, and in the course of the next five days these uprisings were followed by the inhabitants of the other towns in Cavite province joining in the revolt against the Spanish Government although there was no previous arrangement looking to a general revolt. The latter were undoubtedly moved to action by the noble example of the former.Page 2 With regard to the rising in the province of Cavite it should be stated that although a call to arms bearing the signatures of Don Augustin Rieta, Don Candido Firona and myself, who were Lieutenants of the Revolutionary Forces, was circulated there was no certainty about the orders being obeyed, or even received by the people, for it happened that one copy of the orders fell into the hands of a Spaniard named Don Fernando Parga, Military Governor of the province, who at that time was exercising the functions of Civil Governor, who promptly reported its contents to the Captain-General of the Philippines, Don Ramon Blanco y Erenas. The latter at once issued orders for the Spanish troops to attack the revolutionary forces. It would appear beyond doubt that One whom eye of man hath not seen in his wisdom and mercy ordained that the emancipation of the oppressed people of the Philippines should be undertaken at this time, for otherwise it is inexplicable how men armed only with sticks andgulok1 wholly unorganized and undisciplined, could defeat the Spanish Regulars in severe engagements at Bakoor, Imus and Noveleta and, in addition to making many of them prisoners, captured a large quantity of arms and ammunition. It was owing to this astonishing success of the revolutionary troops that General Blanco quickly concluded to endeavour, to maintain Spanish control by the adoption of a Page 3conciliatory policy under the pretext that thereby he could quel the rebellion, his first act being a declaration to the effect that it was not the purpose of his Government to oppress the people and he had no desire “to slaughter the Filipinos.”. The Government of Madrid disapproved of General Blanco's new policy and speedily appointed Lieutenant-General Don Camilo Polavieja to supersede him, and despatched forthwith a large number of Regulars to the Philippines. General Polavieja advanced against the revolutionary forces with 16,000 men armed with Mausers, and one field battery. He had scarcely reconquered half of Cavite province when he resigned, owing to bad health. That was in April, 1897. Polavieja was succeeded by the veteran General Don Fernando Primo de Rivera, who had seen much active service. As soon as Rivera had taken over command of the Forces he personally led his army in the assault upon and pursuit of the revolutionary forces, and so firmly, as well as humanely, was the campaign conducted that he soon reconquered the whole of Cavite province and drove the insurgents into the mountains. Then I established my headquarters in the wild and unexplored mountain fastness of Biak-na-bató, where I formed the Republican Government of the Philippines at the end of May, 1897.Page 4 1 A kind of sword—Translator. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató Don Pedro Alejandro Paterno (who was appointed by the Spanish Governor-General sole mediator in the discussion of the terms of peace) visited Biak-na-bató several times to negotiate terms of … [Read more...]

SILENT FILM: Philippine American War – Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan by Thomas A. Edison; 5 June 1899

Philippine American War

Philippine American War - Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan by Thomas A. Edison; 5 June 1899 From LibraryOfCongress, Washinton D.C.   Comment by Mandirigma.org: At the time of this production, film was a brand new medium. This Film by Thomas Edison shows Filipino Freedom Fighters defending their country against  American Invaders. However the director portrays the Filipinos as "Rebels" and the Americans as defenders of "Freedom" and "Liberty" who overcome the "Insurgents".   http://youtu.be/_ZjrPU6rPHE     SUMMARY From Edison films catalog: From the thick underbrush where the Filipinos are massed comes volley after volley. They are making one of those determined stands that marks Caloocan as the bloodiest battle of the Filipino rebellion. Suddenly, with impetuous rush, Funston's men appear. They pause but for a moment, to fire, reload and fire. The color bearer falls, but the standard is caught up by brave Sergeant Squires and waves undaunted in the smoke and din of the receding battle. This is one of the best battle pictures ever made. The first firing is done directly toward the front of the picture, and the advance of the U.S. troops apparently through the screen is very exciting; the gradual disappearance of the fighters sustaining the interest to the end. 65 feet. $9.75. NOTES Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 5June1899; 37443. Original main title lacking. Reenacted by the New Jersey National Guard. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. Edison code name (for telegraphic orders): Unbroached. MAVIS 47087; Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan. Reenacted May 1899 in the Orange Mountains near West Orange, New Jersey. Sources used: Copyright catalog, motion pictures, 1894-1912; Musser, C. Edison motion pictures 1890-1900, 1997; Niver, K.R. Early motion pictures, 1985; Edison films catalog, no. 94, March 1900, p. 4 [MI]; Edison films catalog, no. 105, July 1901, p. 30 [MI]. SUBJECTS United States.--Army.--Kansas Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 20th. Philippines--History--Philippine American War, 1899-1902--Battlefields. Battles--Philippines. Soldiers. Revolutionaries--Philippines. Funston, Frederick,--1865-1917--Military leadership. Battle casualties--Philippines. Flags--United States. War films. Historical reenactments (Motion pictures) Short films. Silent films. Nonfiction films. RELATED NAMES White, James H. (James Henry), production. New Jersey. National Guard. Thomas A. Edison, Inc. Paper Print Collection (Library of Congress) CALL NUMBER FEC 2820 (ref print) FPE 9628 (dupe neg) FPE 9135 (masterpos) LC 973a (paper pos) DIGITAL ID sawmp 0973 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/sawmp.0973   … [Read more...]

Katipunero: Simeón Ola y Arboleda -Philippine Revolution Hero and the last General to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War

backyard eskrima

  The Paternal Great Grandfather of Mandirigma.orgs' Guro Dino Flores, Segundo Flores was a Katipunero serving under the General Simeón Ola y Arboleda in the Bicol Region. Major Simeón Ola y Arboleda was under General Vito Belarmino, the Zone Commander of the Revolutionary Forces in the Bicol Region. ---------- Simeón Ola y Arboleda Municipal President of Albay, In office 1904–1908 Born: 2 September 1865 Guinobatan, Albay, Philippines Died : 14 February 1952 (aged 86) Guinobatan, Albay, Philippines Organization: Katipunan Simeón Ola y Arboleda (September 2, 1865 – February 14, 1952) was a hero of the Philippine Revolution and the last general to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War. Biography Simeon Ola was born on September 2, 1865 to Vicente Ola and Apolonia Arboleda, who were ordinary citizens with little money. He was enrolled in Holy Rosary Minor Seminary and studied Philosophy, but didn't finish the course. He joined the local branch of the Katipunan in his hometown province of Albay and later became the leader. With the help of a parish priest he was able to acquire arms to support his men. He was promoted to the rank of captain after the battle of Camalig in Albay, 1898 and again promoted to the rank of major after a daring ambush mission that led to the capture of three Americans. He was also the leader of the subsequent valiant attacks on Albay towns namely, Oas, Ligao and Jovellar. He later surrendered on the condition that his men would be granted amnesty. He was put on trial and was proven guilty of sedition and was sentenced to thirty years in prison. In 1904, he was given a pardon and returned to his place of birth and became the municipal president. The regional police command in Legazpi City was name after him. SIMEON A. OLA (1865-1952) Revolutionist In Guinobatan, Albay hailed Simeon Ola, the man who would lead the Bicolanos fight for their freedom. He was born on September 2, 1865 to Vicente Ola and Apolonia Arboleda. Ola was highly regarded in Guinobatan, being the teniente de cuadrillos and a trusted confidant of Father Carlos Cabido, the parish priest of his town. These positions helped him carry out his revolutionary works – recruiting men and acquiring firearms for the revolutionary army. He connived with the jail warden in his town, Sergeant Loame, to free about 93 prisoners. The prisoners soon joined his army. In April 1898, he fought in the battle of Camalig. General Vito Belarmino, the Zone Commander of the Revolutionary Forces in the Bicol Region, designated him the rank of a Captain. Fully committed to the cause of the revolution, he also raised funds amounting to P42, 000.00, which he turned over to General Mariano Trias, Secretary of Finance of the Revolutionary Government. On January 23, 1900, he was promoted Major after he successfully effected an ambush and captured three American soldiers: Dubose, Fred Hunter and Russel. In February that same year, his troops fought against the Americans in Arimbay, Legaspi. His cousin Jose Arboleda perished in the bloody battle. American soldiers’ mighty firepower and combat training did not dampen his spirit; he continued to fight so that his men were encouraged and more men joined his army. With the army of Colonel Engracio Orence, he fought valiantly in the battle of Binogsacan in Guinobatan, Albay. His army rested for over a month in July 1901 when he accompanied General Belarmino to Manila. He resumed his campaign in August by raiding the town of Oas, Albay. On August 12, 1902, he ambushed the American detachment at Macabugos, Ligao. Ola became a marked man to the Americans. Although his troops were easily repulsed during battles, the Americans took him seriously. From March to October 1903, the Americans set up the reconcentration system as a means to stop Ola’s activities. Because of the damage it caused even to the innocent civilians, they turned into negotiations. They sent Ramon Santos and Major Jesse S. Garwood of the Constabulary as emissaries to negotiate for his surrender, which he politely refused. Instead, he carried on his battle. On July 15, 1903, he ambushed the 31st Philippine Scout Garrison under the command of Sergeant Nicolas Napoli in Joveliar, Albay. The persistent effort of the peace panel and his battle weary men made Ola realized that he could never win the war. He became open to the agreement set by Colonel Harry H. Bandholtz, the Assistant Commander of the Constabulary in Lucena, Tayabas, for his surrender. The agreement included general amnesty, fair treatment and justice to his comrades in arms. On September 25, 1903 the negotiating panel composed of Ramon Santos, Eligio Arboleda, Epifanio Orozco, Frank L. Pyle, John Paegelow, J.B. Allison and Joseph Rogers went to his camp in Malagnaton, Mapaco, Guinobatan. Eventually, Ola surrendered to Governor Bette and Colonel … [Read more...]

Emilio Aguinaldo filmed with actor Douglas Fairbanks, Philippines, 1931

Emilio Aguinaldo and Douglas Fairbanks his Cavite home March 26 1931

Emilio Aguinaldo filmed with actor Douglas Fairbanks, Philippines, 1931 http://youtu.be/QJyqxWhQ38o In 1931 Douglas Fairbanks went on a trip to Asia, and made a comic travelogue entitled "Around the World in 80 Minutes". The clip from the Philippines included a short speech in Spanish by Emilio Aguinaldo. Fairbanks was a movie producer and actor in silent films. He co-founded the American film studio United Artists and hosted the first Oscars Ceremony in 1929. La calidad del audio deja mucho que desear, pero me parece que el Sr. Aguinaldo dijo: "Os participo de que he dado la bienvenida a nuestro gran actor (?Douglas Fairbanks) de America. Por la misma razón espero que esta visita que nos ha dignado dicho gran actor,(???), estrechará más la armonía entre americanos y filipinos" Una traducción literal: I have given welcome to our great actor, Douglas Fairbanks, from America. For the same reason, I hope that this visit by this great actor, who has humbled himself to us, will develop greater harmony between Americans and Filipinos.     … [Read more...]

Sino pumatay kay Antonio Luna? – Philippine TV Show Crime Klasik – Episode #301 – June 8, 2012

General Antonio Luna

Sino pumatay kay Antonio Luna? - Philippine TV Show Crime Klasik - Episode #301 - June 8, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvBeckZI9Jo     Isa sa pinakamatapang at pinakamatalinong Heneral na lumaban sa mananakop si General Antonio Luna. Pero hindi tulad ng ibang bayani, sa kamay raw ng kapwa Pilipino natapos ang kaniyang buhay. Paano nabago nito ang ating kasaysayan?   Was it Aguinaldo who had Antonio Luna killed? Go back in time and know the history of Antonio Luna here in Crime Klasik.   More on Crime Klasik: https://www.facebook.com/CrimeKlasik     … [Read more...]

Imprinting Andres Bonifacio: The Iconization from Portrait to Peso by The Malacañan Palace Library

Andres_Bonifacio_photo

Imprinting Andres Bonifacio: The Iconization from Portrait to Peso by The Malacañan Palace Library   The face of the Philippine revolution is evasive, just like the freedom that eluded the man known as its leader.   The only known photograph of Andres Bonifacio is housed in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. Some say that it was taken during his second wedding to Gregoria de Jesus in Katipunan ceremonial rites. It is dated 1896 from Chofre y Cia (precursor to today’s Cacho Hermanos printing firm), a prominent printing press and pioneer of lithographic printing in the country, based in Manila. The faded photograph, instead of being a precise representation of a specific historical figure, instead becomes a kind of Rorschach test, liable to conflicting impressions. Does the picture show the President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan as a bourgeois everyman with nondescript, almost forgettable features? Or does it portray a dour piercing glare perpetually frozen in time, revealing a determined leader deep in contemplation, whose mind is clouded with thoughts of waging an armed struggle against a colonial power? Perhaps a less subjective and more fruitful avenue for investigation is to compare and contrast this earliest documented image with those that have referred to it, or even paid a curious homage to it, by substantially altering his faded features. This undated image of Bonifacio offers the closest resemblance to the Chofre y Cia version. As attested to by National Scientist Teodoro A. Agoncillo and the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, it is the image that depicts the well-known attribution of Bonifacio being of sangley (or Chinese) descent. While nearly identical in composition with the original, this second image shows him with a refined–even weak–chin, almond-shaped eyes, a less defined brow, and even modified hair. The blurring of his features, perhaps the result of the image being timeworn, offers little room for interjection. In contrast, the next image dating from a February 8, 1897 issue of La Ilustración Española y Americana, a Spanish-American weekly publication, features a heavily altered representation of Bonifacio at odds with the earlier depiction from Chofre y Cia. This modification catered to the Castilian idea of racial superiority, and to the waning Spanish Empire’s shock–perhaps even awe?–over what they must have viewed at the time as indio impudence. Hence the Bonifacio in this engraving is given a more pronounced set of features–a more prominent, almost ruthless jawline, deep-set eyes, a heavy, furrowed brow and a proud yet incongruously vacant stare. Far from the unassuming demeanor previously evidenced, there is an aura of unshakable, even obstinate, determination surrounding the revolutionary leader who remained resolute until his last breath. Notice also that for the first (although it would not be the last) time, he is formally clad in what appears to be a three-piece suit with a white bowtie–hardly the dress one would expect, given his allegedly humble beginnings. Given its printing, this is arguably the first depiction of Bonifacio to be circulated en masse. The same image appeared in Ramon Reyes Lala’s The Philippine Islands, which was published in 1899 by an American publishing house for distribution in the Philippines. The records of both the Filipinas Heritage Library and the Lopez Museum reveal a third, separate image of Bonifacio which appears in the December 7, 1910 issue of El Renacimiento Filipino, a Filipino publication during the early years of the American occupation. El Renacimiento Filipino portrays an idealized Bonifacio, taking even greater liberties with the Chofre y Cia portrait. There is both gentrification and romanticization at work here. His receding hairline draws attention to his wide forehead–pointing to cultural assumptions of the time that a broad brow denotes a powerful intellect–and his full lips are almost pouting. His cheekbones are more prominent and his eyes are given a curious, lidded, dreamy, even feminine emphasis, imbuing him with an air of otherworldly reserve–he appears unruffled and somber, almost languid: more poet than firebrand. It is difficult to imagine him as the Bonifacio admired, even idolized, by his countrymen for stirring battle cries and bold military tactics. He is clothed in a similar fashion to the La Ilustración Española y Americana portrait: with a significant deviation that would leave a telltale mark on succeeded images derived from this one. Gone is the white tie (itself an artistic assumption when the original image merely hinted at the possibility of some sort of neckwear), and in its stead, there is a sober black cravat and even a corsage on the buttonhole of his coat. Here the transformation of photograph to engraving takes … [Read more...]

Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library

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Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library Aside from the Masonic influence on the Katipunan, the design of the Philippine flag has roots in the flag family to which it belongs—that of the last group of colonies that sought independence from the Spanish Empire at the close of the 19th century, a group to which the Philippines belongs. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office traces the origins of the Philippine flag’s design elements, which have been in use since General Emilio Aguinaldo first conceived them—the stars and stripes; the red, white, and blue; the masonic triangle; and the sun—and have endured since. Source: http://malacanang.gov.ph/3846-origin-of-the-symbols-of-our-national-flag/     … [Read more...]

Pre-Standardized Philippine Flag by Ambeth R. Ocampo

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Before the Philippine flag was standardized into the form we know today, the sun had a human face and eight rays that differed depending on who made it. The sun in the flag also appeared as: seals, stamps, and logos on official communications. I'm not sure if this is a stamp for postage, revenue, or documentary tax. Ambeth R. Ocampo … [Read more...]

Movie: Supremo (2012), Andres Bonifacio as husband, brother, soldier and hero

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http://youtu.be/oHQ34CKnkIM     About Andres Bonifacio's Biopic Description Andres Bonifacio as husband, brother, soldier and hero Release date August 2012 Genre Epic Drama Studio Alternative Vision Cinema and Strawdogs Studio Productions Plot outline Manila, year 1896. The cry for independence from the tyranny of Spain peals louder than ever. Andres Bonifacio, leader of the rebel movement the Katipunan, leads his men to war. Though ill-equipped and untried in the field of battle, the Katipuneros launch an offensive against a vastly superior Spanish military. What follows is a series of events that will test the nation's brave sons, and an aftermath that will separate the genuine patriots from mere participants. Starring Alfred Vargas, Mon Confiado, Nicco Manalo, Alex Vincent Medina, Edmon Romawac, Shielbert Manuel, Lehner Mendoza, Manu Respall, Jeff Fernandez, Banjo Romero, Alex Cabodil, Nica Naval and Hermie Concepcion Directed by Richard V. Somes Written By Jimmy Flores Produced by PM Vargas, Alfred Vargas, Riza Montelibano, Mai Montelibano and Ellen Ilagan   Supremo (2012) Full Trailer Director: Richard V. Somes Starring: Alfred Vargas Mon Confiado Hermie Concepcion Nicco Manalo Alex Vincent Medina Nica Naval Edmon Romawag Shielbert Manuel Lehner Mendoza Jeff Fernandez Banjo Romero Mano Respall Alex Cabodil Production Manager: Darryl De la Cruz Sound Engineer Jedd Chriss Dumaguina Musical Scorer: Von De Guzman Editors: Carlo Francisco Manatad + Joris Fernandez Director of Photography: Alex Espartero Production Designers: Erin John Martir + Adrian Torres Screenplay: Jimmy Flores Associate Producer: Ellen Ilagan + Maimai Montelibano Line Producer: Riza Montelibano Executive Producers: PM Vargas + Alfred Vargas   http://www.facebook.com/pages/Supremo/407515249292352     … [Read more...]

BOOK: Color Photos Of America’s New Possessions by F. Tennyson Neely (1899)

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Color Photos Of America's New Possessions by  F. Tennyson Neely (1899) Collection of color photographs of the Spanish - American War military actions in the Philippines. Many of these photographs are not found in any other books!   Read it online at The Library of Congress . http://www.archive.org/stream/neelyscolorphoto00newy#page/n0/mode/2up http://www.archive.org/details/neelyscolorphoto00newy       … [Read more...]

BOOK: FOUNDERS OF FREEDOM, The History of the Three Philippine Constitutions (1971)

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Description: The book tells the history of struggle for freedom in the Philippines, from the first massive filipino alliance against Spain during the 16th century, to the Philippine Revolution, to the founding of the Philippine republic, and the succession of Presidents up to the time of President Marcos. Its a book that conditions citizens to the framing of the new Constitution in 1972. In the introduction reads: "Seventy-Three years ago, on 12 June 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Revolution, declared the independence of the Philippines at Kawit". Writers: Vicente Albano Pacis, Dr. Jose M. Aruego, Esteban De Ocampo, Carlos Quirino, Jose Luna Castro, Mauro Garcia, Isidro L. Retizos, D.H. Soriano Publisher: Elena Hollman Roces Foundation, Inc         … [Read more...]

BOOK: Memories of the Philippine Revolution Apolinario Mabini (1963)

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Memories of the Philippine Revolution  Apolinario Mabini (1963) Description: Apolinario Mabini's biographical work about the Philippine Revolution of 1896. Text in Spanish. Publisher: Bureau of Public Printing-Manila. 1963 Author: Apolinario Mabini Pages: 254 … [Read more...]

Book: Photographs from Harper’s History of the War in the Philippines

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  Harper's History of the War in the Philippines Edited by Marrion Wilcox Harper and Brothers, New York, 1900, first edition. Light brown cloth hard covers with red leather label on spine, gilt titles, large folio, 472pp, profusely illustrated with b&w photographs, many full-page color plates (chromolithographs), fold-out plate, maps A detailed and richly illustrated account of the background history and military campaigns of the War. The volume includes a listing of all the US soldiers by rank. Among the color  plates is an illustration  General Lawton by Frederic Remington.                           … [Read more...]

Apolinario ‘Lumpo’ Mabini y Maranan – Conscience of the Philippine Revolution (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903)

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Apolinario Mabini Hero of the Philippine Revolution Conscience  of the Philippine Revolution the Sublime Paralytic key adviser of Emilio Aguinaldo proposed the first constitution of the Philippine Republic born July 22, 1864 Barrio Talaga, Tanawan Batangas to Inocencio Mabini, Dionisia Maranan died May 13, 1903 It was immediately before the proclamation of independence that a young man was brought before Aguinaldo as his adviser. He was Apolinario Mabini. Born of very poor parents, Inocencio Mabini and Dionisia Maranan, in Talaga, Tanawan, Batangas. Mabini studied in a school in Tanawan, then conducted by a certain Simplicio Avelino. Much later, he transferred to a school conducted by the famous pedagogue, Father Valerio Malabanan. He continued his studies at the San Juan de Letran and at the University of Sto. Tomas where he received his law degree in 1894. His dream to defend the poor led him to forsake the priesthood, which his mother wanted him to take. Early in 1896, he contracted an illness, probably infantile paralysis, that led to the paralysis of his lower limbs. When the revolution broke out the same year, the Spanish authorities, suspecting that he was somehow involved in the disturbance, arrested him. The fact, however, that he could not move his lower limbs showed the Spaniards that they had made a mistake. He was released and sent to the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Mabini, it must be noted, was not entirely free from nationalistic association, for he was a member of Rizal's La Liga Filipina and worked secretly for the introduction of reforms in the administration of government. In 1898, while vacationing in Los Baños, Aguinaldo sent for him. It took hundreds of men taking turns at carrying the hammock he was in to bring Mabini to Kawit. Aguinaldo, upon seeing Mabini's physical condition, thought that he must have made a mistake in calling for him to help him in his work. What could a man in such a condition do to help him? But when Mabini spoke, Aguinaldo's doubts vanished. There was firmness in the sick man's voice, and Aguinaldo decided to make him his trusted adviser. From then on, it was Mabini who stood behind Aguinaldo. Envious enemies called him the "Dark Chamber of the President", but his admirers called him the "Brains of the Revolution". History of the Filipino People. Teodoro A. Agoncillo   --- Apolinario Mabini Born of a poor family, Apolinario Mabini was always studious. He was always sad and silent and liked to sit alone to meditate. Mabini studied at San Juan de Letran where he got his Bachelor of Arts degree and Professor of Latin. He also finished Law. He was a spokesman of the Congress, and a notary public. In early 1896, he contracted a severe fever which paralyzed him for the rest of his life. He was later called the Sublime Paralytic. Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898, when he became the chief adviser of Gen. Aguinaldo during the revolution. He drafted decrees and proposed a constitution for the Philippine Republic. He made the plans for the revolutionary government. In 1899, he was captured by the Americans but was later set free. In 1901, he was exiled to Guam but returned to the Philippines in 1903 after agreeing to take an oath of allegiance to the US. He took his oath on February 26, 1903 before the Collector of Customs. On May 13, 1903, he died of cholera in Manila. Excerpts from Talambuhay ng mga Bayani by Rene Alba   --- Apolinario 'Lumpo' Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) Apolinario 'Lumpo' Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899. In Philippine history texts, he is often referred to as "the Sublime Paralytic", and as "the Brains of the Revolution." To his enemies and detractors, he is referred to as the "Dark Chamber of the President."   Early life of Apolinario Mabini Mabini was born on July 23, 1864 in Barangay Talaga in Tanauan, Batangas. He was the second of eight children of Dionisia Maranan, a vendor in the Tanauan market, and Inocencio Mabini, an unlettered peasant. Mabini began informal studies under his maternal grandfather, who was the village teacher. Because he demonstrated uncommon intelligence, he was transferred to a regular school owned by Simplicio Avelino, where he worked as a houseboy, and also took odd jobs from a local tailor - all in exchange for free board and lodging. He later transferred to a school conducted by the Fray Valerio Malabanan, whose fame as an educator merited a mention in José Rizal's novel El Filibusterismo. In 1881 Mabini received a scholarship to go to the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila. An anecdote about his stay there says that a professor there decided to pick on him because his shabby … [Read more...]

Katipunero: Emilio Jacinto. The “Brains of the Katipunan.” (15 December 1875 – 16 April 1899).

  Katipunero: Emilio Jacinto. Revolutionary and writer. Emilio Jacinto y Dizon was considered as one of the greatest military genius during his time. He was very close to Andres Bonifacio. Like Bonifacio, Emilio also comes from a poor family. He was born in Trozo, Manila on December 15,1875. His parents were Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. Despite being orphaned, he managed to send himself to Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He was also able to study law at the University of Santo Tomas although he was not able to finish it because his Spanish classmates often abused him. Emilio was only 19 when he joined the Katipunan. He was known as the brains of the Katipunan when it comes to military matters. His book entitled Kartilya was the one used by the Katipuneros as their guide in fighting the Spanish colonizers. It contained the constitution and by-laws ofthe Katipunan. Reading books was one of Emilio's greatest passions. One of his favorite books was the one about the French Revolution. He also has in his collection a book on how to make gunpowder and dynamite. He also learned quite a few things about the art of war, military strategies and ways of making weapons of war. --- Emilio Jacinto – Utak ng Katipunan Si Emilio Jacinto ay anak nila Mariano Jacinto at Josefa Dizon. Namatay agad ang kanyang ama ilang sandali lamang matapos na siya ay isilang na nagtulak sa kanyang ina na ipaampon si Emilio sa kanyang tiyuhin na si Don Jose Dizon upang magkaroon ng magandang buhay. Si Emilio ay bihasa sa pagsasalita ng Tagalog at Kastila pero mas gusto niya ang Kastila. Siya ay nag-aral sa Kolehiyo ng San Juan de Letran at nang maglaon ay lumipat sa Pamantasan ng Sto. Tomas para mag-aral ng batas. Hindi niya natapos ang kurso at sa edad na 20 ay sumapi siya sa isang sikretong samahan na ang pangalan ay Katipunan. Nang mamatay si Bonifacio, ipinagpatuloy ni Jacinto ang paglaban sa mga Kastila bagamat hindi siya sumali sa puwersa ni Aguinaldo. Namatay si Emilio Jacinto sa sakit na malaria noong Abril 16, 1899 sa Majayjay, Laguna sa edad na 23. Dr. Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar inspired him to be a good writer during his time. He used Dimes Haw as his pen name. He also wrote A la Patria, which he based from Dr. Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios. He was seriously injured in one bloody encounter that resulted to his death on April 16,1899 in Majayjay, Laguna at a young age of 24.   Known as the "Brains of the Katipunan", Emilio Jacinto was born in Trozo, Tondo, Manila, on Dec 15,1875. He was the son of Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. He was fluent in both Spanish and Tagalog, but he spoke more in Spanish. He studied in the Universidad de Santo Tomas, but did not finish college and at 20 joined the Katipunan. Because he was very brilliant, he became the advisor on fiscal matters and secretary to Andres Bonifacio. He also edited and wrote for the Katipunan newspaper "Kalayaan"--Freedom in Tagalog. He wrote in the newspaper under the pen name Dimasilaw, and in the Katipunan he was called Pingkian. Emilio Jacinto was the author of the Kartilya ng Katipunan. After Andres Bonifacio's death, he continued fighting the Spaniards.     The appointment paper of Emilio Jacinto as commander-in-chief of the revolutionary forces north of Manila, signed by Andres Bonifacio as “Pangulo ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan.” The letterhead cites Bonifacio as having founded the Katipunan and initiated the revolution. (ENE Collection)   … [Read more...]

Film: Watawat. Movie recalls the creation of the Philippine flag. Philippines -2010

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  Watawat recalls the creation of the Philippine flag Also entered were actors James Blanco Carlos Morales and the appropriate-produced films. And not just ordinary this movie in terms of genre because it is a period movie titled Flag. Aside from being executive producers Carlos and James Flag, they also perform in the film as the Philippine national heroes. General Emilio Carlos plays Aguinaldao, while James also plays the role of Andres Bonifacio. From Ghalaxy Cinecilio Pictures and Film Productions, the film said the film debut of first-time director Dave Cecilio and two of them Deo Divinagracia the creation of stories. Features in this period film about the creation of the Philippine flag and how it became part of Philippine history. The other cast members of film were Chin-Chin Gutierrez, FAMAS awardee, Mercedes Cabral, Kisza Divinagracia. Those three women performing naghabi of the first flag of the Philippines. Among the cast as well as the flag were Monsour del Rosario, Justin Cuyugan, Mosang, Dan Fernnadez, Angie Ferro, Nathan Lopez, Maricar Madrid, Mara Lopez, Gigi Pirote, Dick Lindayag, Herminia Concpecion, and Fria Rivas. On December 12, 2009 had a trial screening at the University of the Philippines Baguio. Although the film is still raw pina preview it there, as requested. January 2010 now officially start actually present at screenings and walks of people in the movie production. Among the schools and universities is the Baguio Colleges Foundation, University of Baguio, UP Baguio, University of Cordillera, STI College, Colleges Data Center, St. Louis University, etc.. If you can not change the schedule, the target is screening this January 15-21 in Olongapo City area and also OCNHS Like the fourteen (14) public elementary and high schools in Sta.Rita and Subic, etc. Theater SUMVAC held it in Subic Freeport Zone. In February, it also targets to tour Bohol and Nueva Ecija, in March in Cebu and Davao and international screenings also plans soon. Synopsis: This is a journey in the past. The Flag (Flag) is pagsasapelikula a part in the history of the Philippines at the time made ​​the symbol of freedom for the declaration of the First Republic the country. Symbol generated in an effort by Doña Marcela Agoncillo (Chin Chin Gutierrez) based on the request of General Emilio Aguinaldo (Carlos Morales) to create colors. They did it while they live in Hong Kong was caused by the occupation of Spain. There are five days Mrs. Marcela hinahabi also the standard, a partner with his son Enchang (Kisza Divinagracia) and Delfina Natividad (Mercedes Cabral). Obrang generated here represent a shape, color, and the image of courage and truth behind the efforts to achieve a desired freedom. Source of multicolor colors. Red, blue, black white and yellow. Taut the outbreak of the Association was against the repressive foreigners. Became the leader of the revolt were Dagohoy and Diego Silang until developed by Andres Bonifacio (James Blanco) the Katipunan. Also resulted in agreement by Aguinaldo Pakto of Biak-na-Bato the revolution. The eight rays of the sun in eight provinces also felt the first revolt. In Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 was a historic wave of the official flag of the First Republic. This occurred in the middle window of the home of General Aguinaldo. It became the day of full independence. But more followed this revolution against the Spaniards, Americans and other war since switching Dr. Jose Rizal and the Supremo. Many of the historical truth and reveal it tumutulay present. Mute-witness piece of cloth on real events and was even now. Thy banner will continue to shine while gentle people continued to acknowledge its importance. Production staff: Story by Deo Divinagracia and Dave Cecilio Director of Photography: Marvin Reyes Music by Miguel Cortez Wild Sound Sound by AMI Edited by Thop Nazarene, wardrobe by Ronnie Martinez Assistant Directors were Danseco Cicero, Deo Divinagracia, Edmund Mijares, Alex Brin, Ricci Rono, and Carlos Morales. Production Manager: Christopher Manabal, Assistant Production Managers: Kemuel Nini Santos Cruz Executive Producers: Carlos Morales and James Blanco DIRECTOR'S PROFILE: The Director Dave Cecilio was born in Paranas, Samar on March 6, 1972. Native of Bacoor, Cavite City, he was a child and Nora by Cecilio Cecilio Domingo. Among his professional qualifications are as follows: Filmmaker and Writer at the International Academy of Film & Television, Big Foot Entertainment, Hollywood Boulevard (Mactan Lapu-lapu City, Cebu). He was also a TV commercial director, worked at the International Institute for Film & Arts (IIFA) in Makati City. He was also a registered nurse, became a product specialist, former teacher and professioanal medical representative, gained him many kunsaan honor in this field. Among its basic video editing … [Read more...]

Film: Amigo (2010)

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Movie: Amigo (2010) Amigo is a 2010 American drama film written and directed by John Sayles. The film takes place in the Philippines in 1900 during the Philippine–American War. It is one of only a small handful of films directed by an American to address the war. Plot Amigo centers on Rafael Dacanay, cabeza of the barrio of San Isidro in a rice-growing area of Luzon. His brother Simón, head of the local guerilla band, has forced the surrender of the Spanish guardia civil outpost and charged Rafael with the task of imprisoning the guardia Captain and the barrio’s Spanish friar, Padre Hidalgo, in the name of the revolutionary government. But when the American troops chasing General Aguinaldo arrive, the Spanish officer and Padre Hidalgo are freed, and a garrison under the command of Lieutenant Ike Compton is left to ‘protect’ the barrio. The American occupation policy now changes from ‘hearts and minds’ to ‘concentration’ (what was called ‘hamletting’ during the Vietnam war) and Rafael has to answer to both the Americans and the Filipino patriots, with deadly consequences. Cast •    Chris Cooper as Col. Hardacre •    Garret Dillahunt as Lt. Compton •    DJ Qualls as Zeke •    Yul Vàzquez as Padre Hidalgo •    Joel Torre as Rafael •    Lucas Neff as Shanker •    James Parks as Sgt. Runnels •    Dane DeHaan as Gill •    Stephen Taylor as Pvt. Bates •    Rio Locsin as Corazon •    Jemi Paretas as Zuniga •    Bill Tangradi as Dutch •    Bembol Roco as Policarpio •    Ronnie Lazaro as Simon •    Irma Adlawan as Josefa Press Cinematical reports that the film was once titled Baryo, and that the idea for it came from a yet-to-be-published novel Some Time in the Sun, detailing U.S. imperialism in the Philippines. The book will actually be called A Moment in the Sun, though the unrealized screenplay which inspired it was called Some Time in the Sun. Distribution Amigo will show on September 14 at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival. It will also screen at the San Sebastián International Film Festival and the Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival. In North America, the film will be released on August 20, 2011 by Variance Films. From Wikipedia … [Read more...]

Katipunan General Gregorio del Pilar, (1875-1899) – One of the youngest Generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces

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Gregorio del Pilar November 14, 1875(1875-11-14) – December 2, 1899(1899-12-02) (aged 24) Nickname:"Goyong", "Boy General" Place of birth: Bulacan, Bulacan, Philippines Place of death: Tirad Pass, Ilocos Sur, Philippines Allegiance:  First Philippine Republic Service/Branch: Philippine Revolutionary Army Battles/Wars: Philippine Revolution, Philippine-American War Battle of Quingua, Battle of Tirad Pass Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio (November 14, 1875—December 2, 1899) was one of the youngest generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He is most known for his role and death at the Battle of Tirad Pass. Because of his youth, he was called the "Boy General." Early life and education Born on November 14, 1875 to Fernando H. del Pilar and Felipa Sempio of Bulacan, Bulacan, del Pilar was the nephew of propagandist Marcelo H. del Pilar and Toribio H. del Pilar, who was exiled to Guam for his involvement in the 1872 Cavite Mutiny. "Goryo", as he was casually known, studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, where he received his Bachelor’s degree in 1896, at the age of 20. When the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule broke out in August under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio, del Pilar joined the insurgency. He distinguished himself as a field commander while fighting Spanish garrisons in Bulacan. Military career He later joined General Emilio Aguinaldo, who had gained control of the movement, in Hong Kong after the truce at Biak-na-Bato. During the Spanish American War, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines and established the government of the First Philippine Republic. He appointed del Pilar section leader of the revolutionary forces in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija. On June 1, del Pilar landed in Bulacan with rifles purchased in Hong Kong, quickly laying siege on the Spanish forces in the province. When the Spaniards surrendered to del Pilar, he brought his men to Caloocan, Manila to support the other troops battling the Spaniards there. When the Philippine-American War broke-out on February 1899, del Pilar led his troops to a short victory over Major Franklin Bell in the first phase of the Battle of Quingua on April 23, 1899, in which his forces repelled a cavalry charge and killed the highly respected Colonel John M. Stotsenburg,[1] after whom Clark Air Base was originally named (Fort Stotsenburg).[2] Death Gregorio del Pilar circa 1899 Main article: Battle of Tirad Pass On December 2, 1899, del Pilar led 60 Filipino soldiers of Aguinaldo's rear guard in the Battle of Tirad Pass against the "Texas Regiment", the 33rd Infantry Regiment of the United States led by Peyton C. March. A delaying action to cover Aguinaldo's retreat, the five-hour standoff resulted in Del Pilar's death due to a shot to the neck (at the height or end of the fighting, depending on eyewitness accounts). Del Pilar's body was later despoiled and looted by the victorious American soldiers. Del Pilar's body lay unburied for days, exposed to the elements. While retracing the trail, an American officer, Lt. Dennis P. Quinlan, gave the body a traditional U.S. military burial. Upon del Pilar's tombstone, Quinlan inscribed, "An Officer and a Gentleman". In 1930, del Pilar's body was exhumed and was identified by the gold tooth and braces he had installed while in exile in Hong Kong. Documentary His life was shown in the Philippine TV news show Case Unclosed as its 13th episode. Memorials * Fort Del Pilar, home of the Philippine Military Academy in Baguio, is named after him. * In 1944, the Japanese-sponsored Philippine republic of President Jose P. Laurel issued the Tirad Pass Medal commemorating the battle and del Pilar's sacrifice. A bust of General del Pilar occupies the center of the obverse (front) side of the medal. The Tirad Pass Medal was the only award issued to recognize service to the Laurel government during the Japanese occupation. * In 1955, the municipality of Concepcion in Ilocos Sur was renamed in his honor. * In 1995, his life was featured in the movie "Tirad Pass: The Last Stand of General Gregorio del Pilar" starring Romnick Sarmienta. From Wikipedia … [Read more...]

Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot? by Paul Flores

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Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot? by Paul Flores © 1996 by Paul Flores and PHGLA All rights reserved Contrary to popular belief, Philippine resistance to American rule did not end with the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901. There were numerous resistance forces fighting for Philippine independence until the year 1910. One of these forces was led by Macario Sakay who established the Tagalog Republic. Born in 1870 in Tondo, Macario Sakay had a working-class background. He started out as an apprentice in a calesa manufacturing shop. He was also a tailor, a barber, and an actor in comedias and moro-moros. His participation in Tagalog dramas exposed him to the world of love, courage, and discipline. In 1894, Sakay joined the Dapitan, Manila branch of the Katipunan. Due to his exemplary work, he became head of the branch. His nightly activities as an actor in comedias camouflaged his involvement with the Katipunan. Sakay assisted in the operation of the Katipunan press. During the early days of the Katipunan, Sakay worked with Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto. He fought side by side with Bonifacio in the hills of Morong (now Rizal) Province. During the initial stages of the Filipino-American war, Sakay was jailed for his seditious activities. He had been caught forming several Katipunan chapters and preaching its ideals from town to town. Republika ng Katagalugan Released in 1902 as the result of an amnesty, Sakay established with a group of other Katipuneros the Republika ng Katagalugan in the mountains of Southern Luzon. Sakay held the presidency and was also called "Generalisimo." Francisco Carreon was the vice-president and handled Sakay's correspondence. Julian Montalan was the overall supervisor for military operations. Cornelio Felizardo took charge of the northern part of Cavite (Pasay-Bacoor) while Lucio de Vega controlled the rest of the province. Aniceto Oruga operated in the lake towns of Batangas. Leon Villafuerte headed Bulacan while Benito Natividad patrolled Tanauan, Batangas. In April 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto stating that the Filipinos had a fundamental right to fight for Philippine independence. The American occupiers had already made support for independence, even through words, a crime. Sakay also declared that they were true revolutionaries and had their own constitution and an established government. They also had a flag. There were several other revolutionary manifestos written by the Tagalog Republic that would tend to disprove the U.S. government's claim that they were bandits. The Tagalog Republic's constitution was largely based on the early Katipunan creed of Bonifacio. For Sakay, the new Katipunan was simply a continuation of Bonifacio's revolutionary struggle for independence. Guerilla tactics In late 1904, Sakay and his men took military offensive against the enemy. They were successful in seizing ammunition and firearms in their raids in Cavite and Batangas. Disguised in Philippine Constabulary uniforms, they captured the U.S. military garrison in Parañaque and ran away with a large amount of revolvers, carbines, and ammunition. Sakay's men often employed these uniforms to confuse the enemy. Using guerrilla warfare, Sakay would look for a chance to use a large number of his men against a small band of the enemy. They usually attacked at night when most of the enemy was looking for relaxation. Sakay severely punished and often liquidated suspected collaborators. The Tagalog Republic enjoyed the support of the Filipino masses in the areas of Morong, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. Lower class people and those living in barrios contributed food, money, and other supplies to the movement. The people also helped Sakay's men evade military checkpoints. They collected information on the whereabouts of the American troops and passed them on. Muchachos working for the Americans stole ammunition and guns for the use of Sakay's men. Unable to suppress the growth of the Tagalog Republic, the Philippine Constabulary and the U.S. Army started to employ "hamletting" or reconcentration in areas where Sakay received strong assistance. The towns of Taal, Tanauan, Santo Tomas, and Nasugbu in the province of Batangas were reconcentrated. This cruel but effective counter-insurgency technique proved disastrous for the Filipino masses. The forced movement and reconcentration of a large number of people caused the outbreak of diseases such as cholera and dysentery. Food was scarce in the camps, resulting in numerous deaths. Meanwhile, search and destroy missions operated relentlessly in an attempt to suppress Sakay's forces. Muslims from Jolo were brought in to fight the guerrillas. Bloodhounds from California were imported to pursue them. The writ of habeas corpus was suspended in Cavite and Batangas to strengthen counter-insurgency efforts. With support cut off, the continuous American military offensive caused the Tagalog Republic to weaken. Fall of … [Read more...]

June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines

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June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines "A nation is born into freedom on the day when such a people, moulded into a nation by a process of cultural evolution and sense of oneness born of common struggle and suffering, announces to the world that it asserts its natural right to liberty and is ready to defend it with blood, life, and honor." The promotion of a healthy nationalism is part of the responsibility of the leaders of newly independent nations. After they lay the foundation for economic development, they promote nationalism and spur the search for national identity. This we can do by honoring our distinguished forebears and notable periods in our history. A step we took in this direction was to change the date for the commemoration of Philippine Independence day. When I was a congressman, I formed the opinion that July 4 was not the proper independence day for Filipinos and should be changed to June 12-- the date General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Filipinos in Kawit, Cavite, in 1898. Having served in the foreign service, I noted that the celebration of a common independence day with the United States on July 4 caused considerable inconvenience. The American celebration dwarfed that of the Philippines. As if to compound the irony, July 4 seemed tantamount to the celebration of Philippine subjection to and dependence on the United States which served to perpetuate unpleasant memories. I felt, too, that July 4 was not inspiring enough for the Filipino youth since it recalled mostly the peaceful independence missions to the United States. The celebration of independence day on June 12, on the other hand, would be a greater inspiration to the youth who would consequently recall the heroes of the revolution against Spain and their acts of sublime heroism and martyrdom. These acts compare favorably with those of the heroes of other nations. In checking the reaction to my plan to shift independence day to June 12, I found that there was virtual unanimity on the desirability of transferring the celebration from July 4. Likewise, there was a preponderant view for choosing June 12 as the proper day. A few suggested January 21, the opening day of the Malolos Congress in 1899, or January 23, when the Malolos Congress, ratifying the independence proclamation of June 12, established a republican system of government. The reason for this view was that the government temporarily by Aguinaldo when he proclaimed independence on June 12 was a dictatorship. There was no difficulty in adhering to June 12, however, because although Aguinaldo Government was a dictatorship in view of the military operations he was then leading, he led in converting it into a republican Government in the Malolos Congress. Moreover, the celebration of independence refers to its proclamation rather than to the final establishment of the government. In the case of America, when independence was proclaimed on July 4, the American Government was still a confederation and it was much later when it finally became a federal government. The historical fact was that the Filipinos proclaimed their independence from foreign rule on June 12. Even the national anthem and the Filipino flag which are essential features in the birth of a nation were played and displayed respectively at the independence proclamation in Kawit. When I became President, I knew that this was the opportunity to take action on what had been in my mind since entering public life. The specific question was when to make the change. The opportunity came when the US House of Representatives rejected the $73 million additional war payment bill on May 9, 1962. There was indignation among the Filipinos. There was a loss of American good will in the Philippines, although this was restored later by the reconsideration of the action of the US lower chamber. At this time, a state visit in the United States had been scheduled for Mrs. Macapagal and me on the initiative and invitation of President John F. Kennedy. Unable to resist the pressure of public opinion, I was constrained to obtain the agreement of Kennedy to defer the state visit for another time. To postpone the state visit, I wrote a letter on May 14, 1962, to Kennedy, which read in part as follows: The feeling of resentment among our people and the attitude of the US Congress negate the atmosphere of good will upon which my state visit to your country was predicated. Our people would never understand how, in the circumstances now obtaining, I could go to the United States and in all honesty affirm that I bear their message of good will. It is with deep regret theredore that I am constrained to ask you to agree to the postponement of my visit to a more auspicious time. On May 28, 1962, Kennedy wrote me explaining the situation on the war damage bill. His letter stated: In the meantime, I must respect your decision that … [Read more...]