Rajah Sulaiman III, Last Muslim King of Manila (1558 – 1575) – Written in Tagalog by Jose N. Sevilla and Tolentino in the early 1920′s

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Rajah Suliman, Last Muslim King of Manila Rajah Sulaiman III (1558 - 1575) was the last native Muslim king of Manila, now the site of the capital of the Philippines, Manila. He was one of three chieftains, along with Rajah Rajah Lakandula and Adults, to have played a significant role in the Spanish conquests of the kingdoms of the Manila Bay-Pasig River area, first by Martín de Goiti, and Juan de Salcedo in 1570; and later by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1571 The following biography of Rajah Soliman was written in Tagalog by Jose N. Sevilla and Tolentino in the early 1920s:     TALAMBUHAY NI RAHA SOLIMAN Bago nagíng̃ Rahá si Solimán, ay nagíng̃ katulong̃ muna sa pang̃ang̃asiwà ng̃ mg̃a súliranin dito sa Maynilà, ni Raháng̃ Matandâ. Si Lakán Dulà na nanánahanan sa Tundó ay siyá niyáng̃ kasama. Itó ay nang̃ kapanáhunan ni Raháng̃ Matandâ nang̃ taóng̃ 1570. Noón ay isáng̃ pulutóng̃ nang̃ mg̃a sasakyáng̃ kastilà na pinamumunuan ni Martin de Goití at Juan de Salcedo ang̃ dumaong̃ sa luók ng̃ Maynilà. Niyaóng̃ unang̃ datíng̃ dito niná Goití ay dî sila nakalunsád pagdaka. Ang̃ Maynilà, ay may matitibay na mg̃a muóg at sila'y pinaputukán at sinagupà. Nabalitaan niláng isá sa mg̃a makapang̃yarihan doón ay si Solimán, kaya't nagpadalá sina Goití rito ng̃ sugò na nagsásaysáy na silá'y dî naparito upáng̃ makidigmâ kundî upáng̃ makipagkásundô, at ang̃ ganitó'y tinugón sa pamamagitan ng̃ sugò, na ang̃ Hari sa Maynilà ay nagnanasà ng̃ makipagkaibigan sa mg̃a kastilà. Pagtang̃gáp ni Goití ng̃ paklí ni Solimán ay nasók siyá at ang̃ kanyáng̃ mg̃a tao sa ilog ng̃ Pasig at silá'y lumunsád sa isáng̃ baybáy na itinakdâ ng̃ Harì. Sinalubong̃ silá ni Raháng Matandâ at nakipagkamáy sa kanilá, pagkaliban ng̃ iláng̃ sandali ay dumatíng si Rahá Solimán at nakipágkamáy din ng̃uni't nagpasubalì ng̃ gayari: «Kamí ay nagnánasang̃ makipagkaibigan sa mg̃a kastilà samantalang̃ silá'y mabuti sa amin; ng̃uni't mahíhirapan silá ng̃ gaya ng̃ hirap na tiniís na ng̃ ibá, kailán ma't nasain niláng̃ kami'y alisán ng̃ puri». Pagkaraán ng̃ iláng̃ araw si Goití ay nagkulang̃ sa pagkakáibigan sa pagpapaputók ng̃ kaniláng̃ kanyón, at si Rahá Solimán ay napilitang̃ magbago ng̃ kilos. Ipinawasák nitó ang̃ mg̃a sasakyán nina Goití at ipinapuksâ ang̃ kanyáng̃ mg̃a kawal. Nápakabuti ang̃ pagtatang̃gól sa mg̃a kutà at dî nagawâ nang̃ mg̃a kastilà ang̃ makapasok agád, ng̃uni't nang̃ mang̃asalantà ang̃ mg̃a tao ni Solimán at maubos na ang̃ mg̃a punlô ay napipilan din. At nang̃ makuha ng̃ mg̃a kastilà ang̃ Maynilà ay sinalakay ang̃ bahay ni Solimán at dito'y nátagpuán nilá ang̃ isáng̃ mainam na gusali, maiinam na kasang̃kapang̃ sigay, mg̃a damit na mariring̃al na nagkakahalagá ng̃ may 23.000 piso. Hindî nagtaksíl kailán man si Solimán, gaya ng̃ ipinararatang̃ sa kanyá ng̃ mg̃a kastilà. Siyá'y tumupád lamáng̃ sa kanyáng̃ dakilang̃ katung̃kulan na makibaka sa sino mang̃ magnánasang̃ sumirà ng̃ kanyáng̃ kapuriháng̃ pagkaharì, at yáyamang̃ ang̃ mg̃a kastilà ay siyáng̃ nagpasimulâ ng̃ pagbabaka, ay siyá ay nagtang̃gól lamang̃ at natalo, ng̃uni't hindî kailán man nagtaksíl. Ang̃ kanyáng̃ pagibig sa sariling̃ Lupà ay nagudyók sa kanyáng̃ makibaka at siyá ay nakibaka dahil doón. Kung̃ saán mákikitang̃ ang pagguhò ng̃ kaharian ni Solimàn ay utang̃ sa kagahaman ng̃ isáng̃ lahing̃ mang̃aalipin; sa isáng̃ pámahalaáng̃ pinagágaláw ng̃ lakás ng̃ lakás at di ng̃ lakás ng̃ katuwiran. Kawawang̃ bayang̃ maliliít na linúlupig at ginágahasà ng̃ malalakíng bansâ. Ang̃ daigdíg ay patung̃o sa pagunlád, at buhat niyaóng̃ 1914 na gahasain ang̃ Belhika, ang malalakíng̃ Bansâ ay nagsasapì at ipinagtang̃gól ang̃ katwiran ng̃ maliliít na bayan. Panibagong̃ kilos sa daigdíg na bung̃a ng̃ mayamang̃ diwà ng̃ dakilang̃ Wilson sa kaamerikahan.   … [Read more...]

Book: Estudio de los antiguos alfabetos filipinos by Cipriano Marcilla y Martín (1895)


Estudio de los antiguos alfabetos filipinos (1895) Author: Cipriano Marcilla y Martín Publisher: Tipo-litografia del asilo de huérfanos Year: 1895 Language: Spanish … [Read more...]

Colt Artillery Model 1873 Single Action Army(SAA) .45 – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  Colt Artillery Model 1873 Single Action Army(SAA) .45 - Barrel Length: 7" and 5½" - Weight: 2.3 lbs - Cartridge Caliber: .45 Long Colt (255 grain) - Muzzle Velocity: 830 fps - Service: 1873–1902 The Colt SAA .45 became the side arm issued to US Army in 1873. The Colt .45 revolver was considered cutting edge technology at the time. The large caliber was believed to quell conflicts and bring peace. It became known as the "Peacemaker". It would be the most popular revolver of the old west. Today it remains synonymous with the Cowboys of the western frontier. The original Colt SAA issued to troops had the 7" barrel. By early 1890s the US Army decided to downsize their force as well as find ways to save on spending. By 1893 many of the Colt SAA revolvers were replaced by the Colt DA .38. It should be noted the phasing out of the Colt SAA .45 was a long process and many still found use as the side arm of select few units. By 1898 the Colt revolvers were modified with a shorter 5½" and issued first to Artillery units. The altered Colts with 5½" barrels would be known and later called the "Artillery Model". The most popular unit to carry the old Colt .45 SAA would be Teddy Roosevelts Rough Riders during the Cuban Campaign. The Colt SAA .45 would truly shine just as the the Philippine-American War was coming to a close and the beginning of the pacification through out the Philippines; most particularly during patrols and expeditions in the Visayan and Moroland(Mindanao) regions. The Colt .38 revolvers provided to be insufficient in stopping and dropping frantically charged assailants. Few regulars and volunteers still carried the older Colt SAA .45 and noted the significant stopping and knock-down power the revolver had over the newer .38s. Officers soon requested an immediate re-issue of old Colt SAA .45s to the Philippine Islands. Because the Colt SAA .45 would still be used in service all the way up to the end of the Philippine-American War, it would be safe to say the Colt .45 was never truly retired in 1893. By the end of 1902 the Philippine-American War closed and the US volunteers began mustering out of service. As US troop presences began to drop in the Philippines, Tafts Philippine Commission would establish a native police force known as the Philippine Constabulary to fill the roll of bring law and order through out the islands. The Philippine Constabulary would be issued the old 1878 Colt Alaskan .45 revolver, which would be re-designated the Colt 1902 Philippine Model. Resulting from the effective use of the Colt Single Action Army .45. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg … [Read more...]

Colt 1902 Philippine Model Double Action .45LC – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  Colt 1902 Philippine Model Double Action .45LC Originally issued as: 1878 Colt Alaskan Revolver Barrel length: 6" Capacity: 6 round swing out cylinder Cartridge Caliber: .45 LC(Long Colt) Weight: 2 lbs Service: 1878-1892; 1902-1908 Adopted earlier in 1878 by US soldiers serving in Alaska, the pistol was nearly phased out by the new issued .38 revolvers. At the end of the Philippine-American War the Philippine Scouts, along with US military units, and the Philippine Constabulary(Native Police force) began expeditions and patrolling through Moroland and Visayan territory. There they found new adversaries waiting and lurking in the dense terrain of both regions, namely the Tad-Tad/Pulajanes of Samar/Leyte and the Juramentado Moros. The native police force were poorly equipped with Springfield Trapdoor "single shot" rifles, and a ill performing .38 Colt revolver side arm. Both proved to have insufficient stopping power of a hard charging swarm of combatants. A shot assailant does not necessarily make them incapacitated. Sword welding Moros and Filipinos were known to charge through heavy gun fire and still be capable of slashing and killing. Requests were quickly made for older issued .45 Colt revolvers, and the US government answered by reissuing out the older 1878 Alaskan Colt Revolvers to the Philippine Constabulary, re-designating them the 1902 Philippine Model. The .45 revolvers performed up to standard and as expected. The stopping power of the .45 cartridge against Filipinos during this era would result in the US government requesting their newly manufactured and issued sidearm to be chambered in .45. The end result is the M1911 Colt automatic pistol chambered in the newly engineered .45ACP cartridge. The Model 1902 revolver is unique by the enlarged trigger guard. At the time the new smokeless powder cartridges also required new primers, which took more effort to ignite; and with it required a stronger trigger spring. The trigger pull became immense. Colt modified the trigger group by use of the enlarged trigger guard, which gave more leverage to pull the trigger. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg   … [Read more...]

895 Gatling Gun, 1873-1906 – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  895 Gatling Gun Weight: 395 lbs Barrel length: 32" (6-10 barrels) Cartridge Caliber: .30 cal and 45-70 Range: +1000 yards Rate fire: 600-1000 per minute Service: 1873-1906 Invented by American Dr. Richard Jordan Gatling(neighbor of the Colt family in Hartford Connecticut), the Gatling gun is considered by many to be the first machine gun. It was first introduced during the Civil War in 1865. Several different models existed through out its advent. 6 to 10 barrels are positioned in a cylinder. Each barrel having its own chamber and firing mechanism. Ammunition is placed in a magazine canister and attached on top of the cylinder breech. A crank would be operated by the gunner, which would rotate the cylinder and barrels. The rotation loaded, cocked, fired, and ejected spent cartridges. The Gatling gun initially suffered many issues, as nearly all were hand built at the time and many parts were not uniform. By the 1890s, the Gatling gun had significantly improved, and in 1895 the US Army adopted the weapon. The Gatling gun saw much action during the Spanish American War. It gained fame in Cuba giving support fire while Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders assaulted San Juan Hill. Several examples were later shipped and used in the war in the Philippines. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg   … [Read more...]

M1899 Philippine Constabulary Krag-Jørgensen Carbine Rifle – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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M1899 Philippine Constabulary Krag-Jørgensen Carbine Rifle - Bolt Action - Capacity: 5 round internal box magazine - Cartridge Caliber: .30-40 Krag (US Krags) Smokeless - Service: 1906-1917 The Philippine Constabulary were the native police established in 1902 by Tafts Philippine Commission which oversaw civil affairs of the Philippine Islands. It should be noted the PC's were not soldiers as many confused them to be; they were law enforcement officers paid the Civil Philippine Commission. The Philippine Constabulary were originally issued old US military stock Springfield Trapdoor single-shot 45 rifles from the Indian Wars. During the pacification of the islands after the Phil-Am War, the Trapdoor rifle proved to be inferior when fighting in the dense terrains of the Visayas and Mindanao regions where combatants would rush out in hoards. After the first initial shot, reloading another round became near impossible. As many PC inspectors complained: the Trapdoor rifle became a one shot club. The Springfield Trapdoors were later replaced by the Krag Carbines in early 1906. Unique to only the Philippines, the Krag full length rifles were modified and cut down to a shorter size at the POD(Philippine Ordnance Depot) in Intramurous. The Krag Carbine was also short lived, they would later be replaced by Springfield M1903 rifles by 1910(but Krags would still be in service until 1917). Less than a handful of these Philippine Constabulary Krag Carbines exist today. Making them the mostly highly sought after and prized rifle of all Krag models by gun collectors and   Springfield Krag Jørgensen Rifle - Manufactured: Springfield Armory(under license by Krag Jørgensen) - Design: Norwegian - Weight: 8.6lb - Length: 49" - Barrel length: 30" - Cartridge Caliber: 30-40 Krag Smokeless - Capacity: 5 round internal box magazine - Service in US Army: 1892-1903 - Service in Philippine Constabulary: 1906-1917 The US Army adopted the Krag rifle in 1892. Springfield would produce several different variants of the Krag from 1892 to 1899 at their plant in Massachusetts. An estimated 500,000 rifles were produced at Springfield Armory. Production ceased in 1904. The Krag would be the rifle credited for winning the Spanish American War, as well as the Philippine American War. It still remains synonymous to the Span-Am War era. The Krag how ever was very short lived. It only saw two short wars and was already proven to be outclassed, out matched, and obsolete during the first war. The Spanish Mauser proved to be a better all around performer, as well as being a more robust war rifle than the Krag. Loading the Krag was also tedious, as it required loading one round at a time in to the box magazine, where as the Spanish Mauser took 5 round stripper clips that allowed for extremely fast reload. The Mauser was the superior rifle of the two wars, but the American soldiers outnumbered and out-gunned the Spanish and Filipino soldiers armed with Mausers. By 1901 Springfield had developed a new and improved battle rifle that incorporated features and characteristics of both the Spanish Mauser as well as the Krag. The US Army soon adopted Springfields new rifle and named it the M1903. The M1903 were quickly mass produced and outfitted to US Regulars. The Krags however would still find a niche in service. By 1905 the Krags would be re-issued to the Philippine Constabulary and other provincial police departments around the Philippines. Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg   … [Read more...]

Spanish Mauser Model 1893 Bolt Action Rifle – Researched and written by Dnvzs Zjzllg

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  Spanish Mauser Model 1893 Bolt Action Rifle - Manufactured: Loewe Berlin Germany - Weight: 8.6lb - Barrel length: 29" - Cartridge Caliber: 7mm (7x57mm) Smokeless - Service in Spanish Army: Since 1893 The 1893 Mauser bolt action rifle is considered by many to be one of the most revolutionary firearms in history and way ahead of it's era. Accuracy of the rifle being unmatched during its time. The Mauser rifle saw little improvements to its design through out its service. It would be used by nearly all countries up to and during the second world war. Even by todays standards it is considered extremely accurate next to modern firearms. Nearly all bolt action rifles produced today take some design from the Mauser rifle. The 7mm round created a distinctive sound when whizzing by, the American soldiers called it the "Spanish Hornet". Spain contracted Mauser in Loewe Berlin to produce these rifles for their entire military in the early 1890s. The Mauser were to replace outdated rifles like the Remington Rolling Block. The Mauser later shined and gained an infamous reputation during the Spanish American War at Cuba. The Battle of San Juan Hill would be the most famous battle of the Spanish-American War, as well as being the turning point of the war. 800 Spanish soldiers held the hill against an opposing force made up of nearly 20,000 armed men. 15,000 being made of US Soldiers armed with Krags and Springfield Trapdoor rifles. Although the fight lasted only 2 days and the US gained control of the hill, the end result was near disastrous for the Americans. 200 US soldiers lay dead with 1,100 being wounded. The Spanish resulted in only 58 deaths and 170 wounded. The Spanish Mauser rifle was quickly noted by the US military and the US government for its lethality and superiority in this one battle. At the same time in the Philippines, the 2nd phase of the Revolution was in motion and the Philippine Army trampled across the Spanish troops through out the islands. The Filipinos began to equip themselves with captured and left over Spanish firearms. They would also account for the superior performance in the Mauser. Each battalion would have a separate special unit of expert riflemen/snipers(known as Tiradors); and all were to be armed with nothing but Mauser rifles. The most popular Filipino riflemen unit being under the command of General Geronimo, whom he would name "Tiradores de la Muerte"(Shooters of Death). After the outbreak of the Philippine American War, the Tiradores de la Muerte would gain fame in Dec 1899 when the unit defended the town of San Mateo against 800 US troops under the command of Gen Henry Lawton. On the morning of the battle Lawton walked along the firing line in open field to gain a better view of his troops and the opposing force. The troops noted the distinct firing sound of the Mauser rifles and advised the general to take cover. The general ignored their warning and at that instant was struck in the chest by round fired by one of the tiradores Mauser rifle. Gen Lawton would die with in a few minutes. The rifle shot coming from a distance of 300 yards during a storm with rain. Also during the Spanish American War in the Philippines, in the town of Baler a small detachment of 50 Spanish soldiers barracked themselves inside the towns fortified church. Lt Col Teodorico Luna(relative of Juan and Antonio Luna) would lead the attack against the Spaniards and surrounded the church. The Spaniards would hold this position from July 1898 to June 1899. During their stand, the Spanish American War would end, America would purchase the islands, and Philippine American War was in full swing. The Spanish troops finally surrendered to the Philippine Army and were received as friendly allies. The dominance of the Mauser rifle was accredited for the 11 month long stand off. Due to the superiority and success of the Mauser rifle over the newly issued Krag rifles through out the Spanish American War, the US Government took captured Mausers and gave them to Springfield Armory for their own research and development. The US Government would give Springfield Armory the order to build their own Mauser type rifle. In 1900 Springfield had a prototype rifle with similar characteristics of both the Mauser and Krag rifle. The US Government approved the design, and the end result is the M1903 Springfield bolt action rifle in 30-06. It should be noted that Springfield Armory at the time was under government control, but in itself was still a separate entity as a firearms manufacturer. The US Government in a way did not purposely copy the designs, but being Springfield Armory fell under the control of the US Government, Mauser took action against the US government and not Springfield Armory. Both Mauser and the US Government realized the similar features and agreed it infringed on Mausers design patents. The US Government … [Read more...]