Some of the Combat, Massacres,Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands according to the book “The Inhabitants of the Philippines” By Frederic H. Sawyer. 1900

Some of the Combat, Massacres, Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands.

according to the Book_


The Inhabitants of the Philippines


Frederic H. Sawyer

Memb. Inst. C.E., Memb. Inst. N.A.


Sampson Low, Marston and Company Limited

St. Dunstan’s House

Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.C.




Some of the Combat, Massacres, Rebellions, Disputes And Calamities of the Philippine Islands.


1521. Magellan and several of his followers killed in action by the natives of Mactan, near Cebú; Juan Serrano and many other Spaniards treacherously killed by Hamabar, King of Cebú.
1525. Salazar fights the Portuguese off Mindanao, and suffers great losses in ships and men.
1568. Legaspi’s expedition attacked in Cebú by a Portuguese fleet, which was repulsed.
1570. Legaspi founds the city of Cebú, with the assistance of the Augustinians.
1571. Legaspi founds the city of Manila, with the assistance of the Augustinians.
1572. Juan Salcedo fights the Datto of Zambales, and delivers his subjects from oppression.
1574. Siege of Manila by the Chinese pirate Li-ma-hon with 95 small vessels and 2000 men. The Spaniards and natives repulse the attack. The pirates retire to Pangasinan, and are attacked and destroyed by Juan Salcedo.
1577. War against Mindanao and Joló, parts of which are occupied. Disputes between the missionaries and the military officers who desire to enrich themselves by enslaving the natives, which the former stoutly oppose, desiring to convert them, and grant them exemption from taxes according to the “Leyes de Indias.” They considered the cupidity of the soldiers as the chief obstacle to the conversion of the heathen. The Crown decided in favour of the natives, but they did not derive all the benefits they were entitled to, as the humane laws were not respected by the governors.
The Franciscans arrived in Manila.
1580. Expedition sent by Gonzalo Ronquillo to Borneo to assist King Sirela.
1581. Expedition sent by the same to Cagayan to expel a Japanese corsair who had established himself there. The expedition succeeded, but with heavy loss.
Expedition against the Igorrotes to get possession of the gold-mines, but without success.
The Jesuits arrive in Manila.
1582. Expedition against the Molucas, under Sebastian Ronquillo.[390]An epidemic destroyed two-thirds of the expedition, which returned without accomplishing anything.
Great disputes between the encomenderos and the friars in consequence of the ill-treatment of the natives by the former. Dissensions between the Bishop of Manila and the friars who refused to submit to his diocesan visit.
Manila burnt down.
1584. Second expedition against the Molucas, with no better luck than the first.
Rebellion of the Pampangos and Manila men, assisted by some Mahometans from Borneo. Combat between the English pirate, Thomas Schadesh, and Spanish vessels.
Combat between the English adventurer Thomas Cavendish (afterwards Sir Thomas), and Spanish vessels.
1587. The Dominicans arrive in Manila.
1589. Rebellion in Cagayan and other provinces.
1593. Third expedition against the Molucas under Gomez Perez Dasmariñias. He had with him in his galley 80 Spaniards and 250 Chinese galley-slaves. In consequence of contrary winds, his vessel put into a port near Batangas for shelter. In the silence of the night, when the Spaniards were asleep, the galley-slaves arose and killed them all except a Franciscan friar and a secretary. Dasmariñias built the castle of Santiago, and fortified Manila with stone walls, cast a large number of guns, and established the college of Sta. Potenciana.
1596. The galleon which left Manila for Acapulco with rich merchandise, was obliged to enter a Japanese port by stress of weather, and was seized by the Japanese authorities. The crew were barbarously put to death.
1597. Expedition of Luis Perez Dasmariñias against Cambodia, which gained no advantage.
1598. The Audiencia re-established in Manila, and the bishopric raised to an archbishopric.
Expedition against Mindanao and Joló, the people from which were committing great devastations in Visayas, taking hundreds of captives.
Much fighting, and many killed on both sides, without any definite result.
1599. Destructive earthquake in Manila and neighbourhood.
1600. Great sea combat between four Spanish ships, commanded by Judge Morga, and two Dutch pirates. One of the Dutchmen was taken, but the other escaped.
Another destructive earthquake on January 7th, and one less violent, but long, in November.
1603. Conspiracy of Eng-Cang and the Chinese against the Spaniards. The Chinese entrench themselves near Manila; Luis Perez Dasmariñias marches against them with 130 Spaniards. They were all killed and decapitated by the Chinese, who then besieged Manila, and attempted to take it by assault. Being repulsed by the Spaniards, all of whom, including the friars, took up arms, they retired to their entrenchments. They were ultimately defeated, and 23,000 of them were massacred. Only 100 were left alive, and these were sent to the galleys as slaves.[391]
1606. The Recollets arrive in Manila.
Fourth expedition against the Molucas. Pedro de Acuña, having received a reinforcement of 800 men—Mexicans and Peruvians—attacked and took Ternate, Tidore, Marotoy and Herrao, with all their artillery and provisions. He left 700 men in garrison there, and returned to Manila, dying a few days after his arrival. The Augustinians furnished a galleon for this expedition. It was commanded by the Rev. Father Antonio Flores.
1607. Revolt of the Japanese living in and near Manila, and heavy losses on both sides.
1609. Arrival of Juan de Silva with five companies of Mexican and Peruvian infantry. Attack on Manila by a Dutch squadron of five vessels. They were beaten off with the loss of three of their ships.
1610. Unsuccessful expedition against Java. This was to have been a combined attack on the Dutch by Portuguese and Spaniards, but the Spanish squadron did not arrive in time to join their allies, who were beaten by the Dutch fleet in the Straits of Malacca.
Terrific earthquake in Manila and the eastern provinces.
1616. Violent eruption of the Mayon volcano.
1622. Revolt of the natives in Bohol, Leyte and Cagayan, which were easily suppressed.
1624. The Dutch landed on Corregidor Island, but were beaten off.
1627. August. Great earthquake.
1628. Destructive earthquake in Camarines.
1638. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera makes an attack on the Moros of Mindanao, and conquers the Sultanate of Buhayen and island of Basilan. He also defeats the Joloans.
1639. Insurrection of Chinese in the province of Laguna and in Manila. Out of 30,000, 7000 ultimately surrendered. All the rest were massacred by the Tagals.
1640. The Dutch attacked the Spanish garrisons in Mindanao and Joló. The governor-general, fearing they might attack Manila, withdrew the garrisons from the above places to strengthen his own defences, thus leaving the Moros masters of both islands.
1641. Eruption of the Taal volcano. Violent earthquake in Ilocos.
1645. The Dutch attacked Cavite and other ports, but were repulsed.
Rebellion of the Moros in Joló, and of the natives of Cebú and other provinces, who were oppressed by forced labour in building vessels, and other services.
In these years there were great disputes between the Spaniards of the capital and the friars.
Great earthquake in Manila, 30th November, called St. Andrew’s earthquake.
1646. Long series of strong earthquakes, which began in March with violent shocks, and lasted for sixty days.
1648. Great earthquakes in Manila.
1653. Great devastations by the Moros of Mindanao, which were severely punished.
Rebellion in Pampanga and Pangasinan against being forced to cut timber gratuitously for the navy. Suppressed after a serious resistance.[392]
1658. Destructive earthquake in Manila and Cavite.
1662. The Chinese pirate, Cong-seng, demands tribute from the Governor of the Philippines. A decree is issued ordering all Chinamen to leave the Philippines. The Chinese entrench themselves in the Parian, and resist. Thousands were killed, and 2000 who marched into Pampanga were all massacred by the natives.
Great troubles occurred between the governor, Diego de Salcedo, and the archbishop.
1665. 19th June, violent and destructive earthquake in Manila.
1669. During the government of Manuel de Leon, further troubles occurred between the archbishop and the Audiencia. The archbishop was banished, and sent by force to Pangasinan. But a new governor, Gabriel de Cruzalegui, arrived, and restored the archbishop, who excommunicated the dean and chapter.
1675. Destructive earthquake in South Luzon and Mindoro.
1683. Great earthquake in Manila.
1689. Archbishop Pardo having died, was succeeded by P. Camacho, and now great disorders arose from his insisting on making the diocesan visit, which the friars refused to receive, and would only be visited by their own Provincial. Again Judge Sierra required the Augustinians and Dominicans to present the titles of the estates they possessed in virtue of a special commission he had brought from Madrid, which they refused to obey, and the end of the dispute was that Sierra was sent back to Mexico, and another commissioner, a friend of the friars, was appointed, to whom they unofficially exhibited the titles.
1716. Destructive eruption of the Taal volcano, and violent earthquake in Manila.
1717. Fernando Bustillo Bustamente became governor, and re-established garrisons in Zamboanga and Paragua. He caused various persons who had embezzled the funds of the colony to restore them, imprisoning a corrupt judge. He was assassinated by the criminals he had punished, and nothing came of the inquiry into his death.
1735. Earthquake in Baler, and tidal wave.
At this time, the audacity of the Moro pirates was incredible. They ravaged the Visayas and southern Luzon, and carried away the inhabitants by thousands for slaves. The natives began to desert the coast, and take to the interior. Pedro Manuel de Arandia, obeying repeated orders, decreed the expulsion of the Chinese.
1744. Another rising in Bohol, due to the tyranny of a Jesuit priest named Morales. The chief of this rising was a native named Dagohoy, who put the Jesuit to death, and maintained the independence of Bohol, paying no tribute for thirty-five years. When the Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines, Recollets were sent to Bohol, and the natives submitted on receiving a free pardon.
1749. Eruption of the Taal volcano, and earthquake in Manila. The eruption lasted for twenty days.
1754. Violent eruption of the Taal volcano, which began on 15th May,[393]and lasted till the end of November. This was accompanied by earthquakes, an inundation, terrifying electrical discharges, and destructive storms. The ashes darkened the country for miles round, even as far as Manila. When the eruption ceased, the stench was dreadful, and the sea and lake threw up quantities of dead fish and alligators. A malignant fever burst out, which carried off vast numbers of the population round about the volcano.
1762. A British squadron, with troops from India, arrived in the bay 22nd September, and landed the forces near the powder-magazine of S. Antonio Abad. On the 24th, the city was bombarded. The Spaniards sent out 2000 Pampangos to attack the British, but they were repulsed with great slaughter, and ran away to their own country.
The civil population of Manila were decidedly in favour of resisting to the last drop of the soldiers’ blood; but the soldiers were not at all anxious for this. Confusion arose in the city, and whilst recriminations were in progress, the British took the city by assault, meeting only a half-hearted resistance.
The natives immediately began plundering, and were turned out of the city by General Draper. The Chinese also joined in the robbery, and a few were hanged in consequence. The city was pillaged. The British regiments are said to have behaved well, but the sepoys ravished the women, and killed many natives.
Cavite was about to be surrendered, but as soon as the native troops there knew what was going on, they began at once to plunder the town and arsenal.
1763. A British expedition sailing in small craft took possession of Malolos on January 19th, 1763. The Augustin and Franciscan friars took arms to defend Bulacan, where two of them were killed in action.
It was said that the Chinese were conspiring to exterminate the Spaniards. Simon de Anda, the chief of the war-party amongst the Spaniards, issued an order that all the Chinese in the Philippines should be hanged, and this order was in a great measure carried out. This was the fourth time the Spaniards and natives exterminated the Chinese in the Philippines.
Peace having been made in Europe, the British evacuated Manila in March, 1774.
In order to satisfy their vanity, and account for the easy victory of the British, the Spaniards made various accusations of treachery against a brave Frenchman named Falles, and a Mexican, Santiago de Orendain. Both those men gallantly led columns of Pampangos against the British lines in the sortie before mentioned. Although the Pampangos, full of presumption, boldly advanced against the British and sepoys, they were no match for disciplined troops led by British officers, and were hurled back at the point of the bayonet. The inevitable defeat and rout was made a pretext for the infamous charges against their leaders. It may be asked, Was there no Spaniard brave enough to lead the[394]sorties, that a Frenchman and a Mexican were obliged to take command?
The Spaniards in this campaign showed themselves more at home in making proclamations, accusations, and intriguing against each other, than in fighting. However, the friars are exempt from this reproach, for Augustinians, Dominicans and Franciscans, fought and died, and shamed the soldiers.
No less than ten Augustinians fell on the field of battle, nineteen were made prisoners, and twelve were banished. The British are said by the Augustinians to have sacked and destroyed fifteen of their conventos, or priests’ houses, six houses of their haciendas, and to have sold everything belonging to them in Manila. The Augustinians gave their church bells to be cast into cannon for the defence of the islands.
Spaniards and natives, however, showed great unanimity and enthusiasm in massacring or hanging the unwarlike Chinamen, and in pillaging their goods. Nearly all the Chinese in the islands, except those in the parts held by the British, were killed.
During the Anglo-Spanish war there were revolts of the natives in Pangasinan and in Ilocos, then a very large province (it is now divided into four), but both these risings were suppressed. The same happened with a revolt in Cagayan. Disturbances also occurred in many other provinces.
Simon de Anda became Governor-General, and carried out the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Philippines. Great troubles again occurred between the Archbishop and the friars over the diocesan visit.
1766. 20th July, violent eruption of the Mayon volcano.
23rd October, terrible typhoon in Albay, causing enormous destruction of life and property.
1777. José Basco y Vargas, a naval officer, came out as Governor-General, and found the country overrun with banditti. He made a war of extermination against them, and then initiated a vigorous campaign against the Moros. He repaired the forts, built numbers of war vessels, and cut up the pirates in many encounters. Basco governed for nearly eleven years.
1784. During the government of Felix Marquina, a naval officer, the Compañia de Filipinas was founded to commence a trade between Spain and the Philippines. Marquina was succeeded by Rafael Maria de Aguilar, an army officer, who organized the land and naval forces, and made fierce war on the Moros. He governed the islands for fourteen years.
1787. Violent and destructive earthquake in Panay.
1796. Disastrous earthquake in Manila.
1800. Destructive eruption of the Mayon volcano.
1807. Rebellion in Ilocos.
When the parish priest of Betal, an Augustinian, was preaching to his flock, exhorting them to obedience to their sovereign, a woman stood up in the church and spoke against him, saying that they should not believe him, that his remarks[395]were all humbug, that with the pretence of God, the Gospel, and the King, the priest merely deceived them, so that the Spaniards might skin them and suck their blood, for the priests were Spaniards like the rest. However, the townsmen declared for the King, and took the field under the leadership of the priest.
1809. The first English commercial house established in Manila.
1811. Rebellion in Ilocos to change the religion, nominating a new god called Lungao. The leaders of this rebellion entered into negotiations with the Igorrotes and other wild tribes to exterminate the Spaniards, but the conspiracy was discovered and frustrated.
1814. Rebellion in Ilocos and other provinces.
Prisoners released in some towns in Ilocos. This rebellion was in consequence of General Gandarás proclaiming the equality of races, which the Indians interpreted by refusing to pay taxes.
1st February, violent earthquake in south Luzon and destructive eruption of the Mayon volcano. Astonishing electrical discharges.
A discharge of ashes caused five hours’ absolute darkness, through which fell showers of red hot stones which completely burnt the towns of Camalig, Cagsana, and Budiao with half of the towns of Albay and Guinchatau, and part of Bulusan.
The darkness caused by the black ashes reached over the whole of Luzon, and even to the coast of China. So loud was the thunder that it was heard in distant parts of the Archipelago.
Great epidemic of cholera in Manila.
1820. Massacre of French, English, and Americans in Manila by the natives who plundered their dwellings, after which they proceeded with the fifth massacre of the Chinese. They asserted that the Europeans had poisoned the wells and produced the cholera. The massacre was due to the villainous behaviour of a Philippine Spaniard named Varela, who was Alcalde of Tondo, equivalent to Governor of Manila, and to the criminal weakness and cowardice of Folgueras the acting governor-general, who abstained from interference until the foreigners had been killed, and only sent out troops when forced by the remonstrances of the friars and other Spaniards.
The archbishop and the friars behaved nobly, for they marched out in procession to the streets of Binondo, and did their best to stop the massacre, whilst Folgueras, only attentive to his own safety, remained with the fortifications.
1822. Juan Antonio Martinez took over the government in October. Folgueras having reported unfavourably of the officers of the Philippine army, Martinez brought with him a number of officers of the Peninsular army to replace those who were inefficient.
This caused a mutiny of the Spanish officers of the native army, and they murdered Folgueras in his bed. He thus expiated his cowardice in 1820. The mutiny was, however,[396]suppressed, and Novales and twenty sergeants were shot. Novales’ followers had proclaimed him Emperor of the Philippines. The constitution was abolished by Martinez, without causing any rising.
1824. Destructive earthquake in Manila.
Alonzo Morgado appointed by Martinez to be captain of the Marina Sutil, commenced an unrelenting persecution of the piratical Moros, causing them enormous losses.
1828. Another military insurrection, headed by two brothers, officers in the Philippine army.
From this date Peninsular troops were permanently maintained in Manila, which had never been done before.
1829. Father Bernardo Lago, an indefatigable missionary of the Augustinian Order, with his assistants baptised in the provinces of Abra and Benguet more than 5300 heathen Tinguianes and Igorrotes, and settled them in towns.
1834. Foreign vessels allowed to enter Manila by paying double dues.
1836–7. Great disturbances amongst the natives in consequence of the ex-claustration of the friars in Spain. The natives divided into two parties. One wished to turn out the friars and all Spaniards, the others to turn out all Spaniards except the friars, who were to remain and take charge of the government.
The disturbances were ultimately smoothed over.
1841. Marcelino de Oráa being Governor-General, a sanguinary insurrection burst out in Tayabas, under the leadership of a native, Apolinario de la Cruz. He murdered the Alcalde of the province, and persuaded his fanatical adherents that he would make the earth open and swallow up the Spanish forces when they attacked.
His following was composed of 3000 men, women, and children. They were attacked by four hundred soldiers and as many cuadrilleros and coast-guards, and suffered a crushing defeat, and a third of them were slain.
Apolinario de la Cruz was apprehended, and immediately put to death.
Apolinario called himself the “King of the Tagals,” and told his followers that a Tagal virgin would come down from Heaven to wed him, that with a handful of rice he could maintain all who followed him, and that the Spanish bullets could not hurt them, and many other absurd things. His followers declared that he had signified his intention, in case of being victorious, to tie all the friars and other Spaniards to trees, and to have them shot by the women with arrows.
There lay in garrison at Manila at this time a regiment composed of Tagals of Tayabas, and they also mutinied, and were shot down by the other troops.
1844. Royal order prohibiting the admission of foreigners to the interior of the country.
Narciso de Claveria became Governor-General, and organised a police force called the Public Safety for Manila, and similar corps for the provinces. Up to this time the Alcaldes Mayores of provinces had been allowed to trade, and, in fact, were almost the only traders in their provinces,[397]buying up the whole crop. This forced trade is quite a Malay custom, and is practised in Borneo and the Malay States under the name of Serra-dagang.
The Alcaldes Mayores used to pay the crown one third, or half, or all their salary for this privilege, and took in return all they could squeeze out of their provinces without causing an insurrection, or without causing the friars to complain of them to the Government, for the parish priests were ever the protectors of the natives against the civil authority. This privilege of trading was now abolished as being unworthy of the position of governor of a province.
1851. Expedition by the Governor-General Antonio de Urbiztondo against Joló. The force consisted of four regiments, with artillery, and a battalion of the inhabitants of Cebú, under the command of a Recollet friar, Father Ibañez. These latter behaved in the bravest manner, in fact they had to; for their wives, at the instance of the priest, had sworn never to receive them again if they turned their backs on the enemy.
The undaunted Father Ibañez led them to the assault, and lost his life in the moment of victory. Eight cottas (forts), with their artillery and ammunition, were captured by this expedition, and a great number of Moros were killed.
After this the Joló pirates abated their insolent attacks. Claveria made an expedition against the piratical Moros and seized their island of Balanguingin, killing 400 Moros, and taking 300 prisoners, also rescuing 200 captives. He also captured 120 guns and lantacas, and 150 piratical vessels. This exemplary chastisement tranquillised the Moros for some time.
1853. 13th June. Loud subterranean noises in Albay and eruption of the Mayon volcano. Fall of ashes and red-hot stones which rolled down the mountain and killed thirty-three people.
1854. Insurrection in Nueva Ecija under Cuesta, a Spanish mestizo educated in Spain, where Queen Isabela had taken notice of him.
He arrived in Manila with the appointment of Commandant of Carabineros in Nueva Ecija, and immediately began to plot. The Augustine friars harangued his followers and persuaded them to disperse, and Cuesta was captured and executed, with several other conspirators; others were banished to distant islands.
In this year Manuel Crespo became Governor-General, and a military officer, named Zapatero, endeavoured to strangle him in his own office.
1855. Strong shocks of earthquake in all Luzon. Eruption of the Mayon volcano.
1856. In the latter part of this year a submarine volcanic explosion took place at the Didica shoal, eight miles north-east of the island of Camiguin in the Babuyanes, to the north of Luzon. It remains an active volcano, and has raised a cone nearly to the height of the volcano of Camiguin, which is 2414 feet high.[398]
1857. The old decrees against foreigners renewed.
Fernando de Norzagaray became governor-general, and found the country over-run by bandits, against whom he employed severe measures. He greatly improved Manila.
The French in Cochin-China, finding more resistance than they expected, appealed to Norzagaray for help. He lent them money, ships, and about a thousand native troops, who behaved with great bravery during the campaign.
1860. Ramon Maria Solano succeeded to the Government.
In this year two steam sloops and nine steam gunboats were added to the naval forces, and now the Moros could only put to sea running great risks of destruction.
These nine gunboats were the greatest blessings the Philippines had received for many years.
1861. José de Lemery y Ibarrola, Governor-General. Mendez-Nuñez, with the steam sloops and gunboats, inflicted terrible chastisement on the piratical Moros.
1862. Rafael de Echague y Bermingham became Governor-General.
Second visitation of cholera in the islands, but not so severe as in 1820.
1863. Terrible earthquake in Manila and the surrounding country, causing thousands of victims, destroying the cathedral, the palace of the governor-general, the custom houses, the principal churches (except St. Augustine), the public and private buildings, in fact, reducing the city to a ruin.
At this time the steam gunboats continually hostilised the Moros of Joló, and caused them great losses.
1865. Juan de Lara y Irigoyen became Governor-General, and took measures to subdue the bandits, who were committing great depredations and murders. Hostilities continued in Joló, as the Moros had recommenced their piratical cruises.
1866. Frequent earthquakes in Manila and Benguet.
At this time the Treasury was in the greatest difficulty, and could not meet the current payments. A large quantity of tobacco was sold to meet the difficulty.
1867. José de la Gandara y Navarro became Governor-General. To him is due the credit of creating that excellent institution the Guardia Civil, which has extirpated the banditti who infested the islands for so many years.
An expedition was sent against the Igorrotes, but without effecting anything of consequence.
1868. June 4th. Intense earthquake in the island of Leyte.
1869. Carlos Maria de la Torre became Governor-General, and was not ashamed to publish a proclamation offering the bandits a free pardon if they presented themselves within three months. Hundreds and thousands of men now joined the bandits for three months murder and pillage, with a free pardon at the end of it. This idiotic and cowardly proclamation was most prejudicial to the interests of the country. Finally a special corps, called La Torre’s Guides, was organised to pursue the bandits.
1871. Rafael Izquierdo y Guttierez became Governor-General, and raised the excellent corps called La Veterana to act as the police of the capital.[399]
December 8th, eruption of the Mayon volcano, and discharge of ashes and lava. Two persons smothered, and one burnt.
16th February. Commencement of the series of earthquakes which preceded the frightful volcanic eruption in the island of Camiguin on 30th April. Full details of this terrible event are preserved. A volcanic outburst took place on the above date at 344 metres from the town of Cabarman, and near the sea. Great volumes of inflammable gases were ejected from deep cracks in the neighbouring hills, which presently took fire, and soared in flames of incredible height, setting fire to the forests. The wretched inhabitants who had remained in their houses found themselves surrounded by smoke, steam, water, ashes, and red hot stones, whilst their island seemed on fire, and they had sent away all their seaworthy craft with the women and children.
At first the volcanic vent was only two metres high, but it continually increased.
After the eruption, the earthquakes decreased, and on 7th May entirely ceased.
The volcano gradually raised itself by the material thrown out to a height of 418 metres.
1872. Military revolt in Cavite, in which the native clergy were mixed up. A secret society had been working at this plot for several years, and was very widely extended. It inundated the towns of the Archipelago with calumnious and libellous leaflets in the native languages. The conspiracy coincided with the return of the Jesuits in accordance with a Royal Order, and their substitution for the Recollets missionaries in many parishes in Mindanao. In turn, the Recollets, removed from Mindanao, were given benefices in Luzon which, for one hundred years, had been in the hands of the native clergy, who were, in consequence, very dissatisfied, and great hatred was aroused against the Recollets. The mutiny was suppressed by the Spaniards and the Visayas troops, who bayoneted the Tagals without mercy, even when they had laid down their arms.
Besides many who were shot for complicity in this revolt, three native priests—D. Mariano Gomez, D. Jacinto Zamora, and D. José Burgos—were garrotted in Bagumbayan on the 28th February. Much discussion arose about the guilt or innocence of these men, and it is a matter on which friars and native clergy are never likely to agree.
Later on, a rising took place in Zamboanga penal establishment, but this was put down by the warlike inhabitants of that town, who are always ready to take up arms in their own defence, and are very loyal to Spain.
Loud subterranean noises in Albay. Eruption of the Mayon volcano, which lasted for four days.
1873. Juan de Alaminos y Vivar became governor-general.
The ports of Legaspi, Tacloban and Leyte, were opened to foreign commerce.
November 14, 1873, violent earthquake in Manila. Eruption of the Mayon volcano, from 15th June to 23rd July.[400]
1874. Manuel Blanco Valderrama, being acting governor-general, fighting took place in Balábac, where the Spanish garrison was surprised by the Moros. José Malcampo y Monge, a rear-admiral, took over the government of the islands, and, during his administration, the news of the proclamation of Alfonso XII, as King of Spain was received, and gave great satisfaction in Manila, which had never taken to the Republican Government in Spain.
Malcampo led a strong expedition, consisting of 9000 men, against the Moros, and took Joló by assault, after bombarding the Cottas by the ships’ guns. At the end of his time, the regiment of Peninsular Artillery had become demoralised, and its discipline very lax. Finally, the soldiers refused to obey their officers, and broke out of barracks.
Two of them were shot dead by the officer of the guard at the barrack-gate, Captain Brull, but the affair was hushed up, and no one was punished. Discipline was quite lost.
1877. Great devastation by locusts in province of Batangas. Domingo Moriones y Murillo arrived, and took over the government on 28th February. His first act was to shoot a number of the Spanish mutineers, put others in prison, and send back fifty to Spain in the same vessel with Malcampo. This incident is related in greater detail in Chapter III. The Treasury was in the greatest poverty, and the poor natives of Cagayan obliged to cultivate tobacco and deliver it to the government officials, had not been paid for it for two or three years, and were actually starving. Moriones did what he could for them, and strongly insisted on the abolition of the “estanco.”
To this worthy governor, Manila and the Philippines owe much. He insisted on the legacy of Carriedo being employed for the object it was left for, instead of remaining in the hands of corrupt officials.
He also made good regulations against rogues and vagabonds.
1879. Nov. 8th. Violent typhoon passed over Manila, doing much damage.
July 1st. Commencement of earthquakes in Surigao (Mindanao), which lasted over two months.
1880. Fernando Primo de Rivera became Governor-General, 15th April.
On July 14th, a violent earthquake took place, doing enormous damage in the city of Manila and the central provinces of Luzon. The seismic disturbance lasted till the 25th July. The inhabitants of Manila were panic-stricken, and took refuge in the native nipa houses.
General Primo de Rivera made an expedition against the Igorrotes, and the vile treatment the soldiers meted out to the Igorrote women has delayed for years the conversion of those tribes.
1881. Eruption of the Mayon volcano, which began on July 6th, and lasted till the middle of 1882.
At times there were loud subterranean noises, after which the flow of lava usually increased.
1882. Dreadful epidemic of cholera which, in less than three months,[401]carried off 30,000 victims in the city and province of Manila. In the height of the epidemic the deaths reached a thousand a day. The victims were mostly natives, but many Spaniards died of the disease. Only one Englishman died, and this was from his own imprudence. A typhoon passed over Manila on October 20th, and caused great damage on shore and afloat. Twelve large ships and a steamer were driven on shore, or very seriously damaged.
On November 5th, another typhoon, not quite so violent as the first, took place. After this, the cholera almost entirely stopped. On December 31st, another typhoon occurred.
1883. Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, captain-general in the army, and the pacificator of Cuba, assumed the government 7th April, and was received with great show of satisfaction by the Spaniards.
The old tribute of the natives was replaced by the tax on the Cédulas-personales.
During his time there were threats of insurrection, and additional Peninsular troops were sent out. He resigned from ill-health 1st April, 1885.
October 28th. Typhoon passed over Manila.
1885. Emilio Terrero y Perinat assumed the government of the islands on April 4th.
He conducted successful expeditions against the Moros of Mindanao and Joló.
In the month of May, during the great heat, the River Pasig was covered with green scum from the lake. The water was charged with gas, the fish and cray-fish died, and the stench was overpowering, even at a couple of miles distance from the river.
A huge waterspout was formed in the bay, and passed inland.
November. Death of King Alfonso XII., and mourning ceremonies in all the islands.
October 2nd. Eruption of the Taal volcano.
1886. 5th March. Separation of the executive and judicial powers. Appointment of eighteen civil governors instead of alcaldes—mayores of provinces. Very great inconvenience occurred through the delay in sending out the Judges of First Instance, and the duties were, in some cases, temporarily performed by ignorant persons devoid of any legal training.
11 P.M., 2nd April, an enormous flaming meteor traversed the sky, travelling from E. to W., and when about the zenith it split into two with a loud explosion, the pieces diverging at an angle of perhaps 45°; they fell, apparently, at a great distance, producing a violent concussion like a sharp shock of earthquake.
24th April. Attack by bandits on the village of Montalban. Two of them were killed by the Guardia Civil.
8th July. Eruption of the Mayon volcano in Albay. It continued to discharge ashes and lava, bursting out into greater violence at times till the middle of March, 1887.
March 19th. Don German Gamazo, Minister for the[402]Colonies, lays before the Queen-Regent, for her approbation, the project of the General Exhibition of the Philippines, to be held in Madrid in 1887. In it he says:—
“By this we shall bring about that the great sums of money which are sent from the metropolis to purchase in foreign countries cotton, sugar, cacao, tobacco, and other products, will go to our possessions in Oceania, where foreign merchants buy them up, with evident damage to the material interests of the country.”
When it is considered that the freight from Manila to Barcelona in the subsidised Spanish Royal Mail steamers was considerably higher than that charged in the same steamers to Liverpool, that enormous duties were charged in Spain on sugar and hemp, which enter British ports duty free, and that British capital was advanced to the cultivators to raise these very crops, the idiotic absurdity and contemptible hypocrisy of such a statement may be faintly realised by the reader.
In May the mud of the Pasig became permeated with bubbles of gas, and floated to the surface. On May 23rd, the writer witnessed several violent explosions of fetid gas smelling like sulphuretted hydrogen from the mud of the Pasig at Santa Ana.
June 7th. Triple murder committed at Cañacao by a Tagal from jealousy.
20th May. Three days’ holiday and public rejoicings ordered in honour of the birth of the King of Spain (Alfonso XIII.).
1887. January 3rd. Troops embarked in Manila for the expedition against the Moros of Mindanao under General Terrero.
March 5th. The United States warship Brooklyn arrived in Manila.
July 14th. The Penal Code put in force in the Philippines.
December 3rd. The Civil Code put in force in the Philippines.
1888. March 1st. A petition is presented to the Acting Civil Governor of Manila by the Gobernadorcillo and Principales of Santa Cruz, praying for the expulsion of the religious orders and of the Archbishop, the secularization of all benefices, and the confiscation of the estates of the Augustinians and Dominicans. See Chapter VI.
December 15th. Violent eruption of Mayon volcano with subterranean noises, storms, thunder and lightning. Don Valeriano Weyler, Marques de Tenerife, became governor-general.
1890. Agrarian disturbances occurred at Calamba and Santa Rosa between the tenants on the Dominicans’ estates and the lay brother in charge. During this year there was a great increase of secret societies. A woman admitted as a mason. A woman’s lodge established. See Chapter IX.
February 21st. Violent eruption of the Mayon.
February 24th. Several explosions occurred at the summit, discharging showers of white-hot bombs. About 100 metres of the top toppled over. Many of the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns fled to a distance.[403]
1891. Don Emilio Despujols, Conde de Caspe, became governor-general. See Chapter III.
1893. Doroteo Cortes banished to the Province of La Union, other malcontents banished to different localities.
October 3rd. Eruption of the Mayon and explosion of volcanic bombs. Loud subterranean noises and deafening thunder.
A vast column of smoke ascended to the sky, from which proceeded violet-coloured lightning.
The eruption lasted till the end of October.
1894. May. The Datto Julcainim, with seventy armed Moros from Sulu, landed in Basilan Island to recover tribute from the natives, but was sent back by a Spanish gunboat.
1896. August 30th. Tagal insurrection broke out near Manila and in Cavite Province. See Chapter X.
1897. June 25th. Violent and disastrous eruptions of the Mayon. Complete destruction of the villages San Antonio, San Isidro, Santo Niño, San Roque, Santa Misericordia, and great damage to other places by the incandescent lava. A dreadful tempest destroyed houses and plantations in places where the lava did not reach. About 300 people were either killed outright or died of their wounds. Fifty wounded persons recovered.
1898. March 24th. Revolt of the famous Visayas or 74th Regiment at Cavite.
March 25th. Massacre of the Calle Camba.
April 24th. Meeting at Singapore between Aguinaldo and the United States’ Consul, Mr. Spencer Pratt.
April 26th. Aguinaldo proceeds to Hong Kong.
May 1st. Naval battle of Cavite. Destruction of the Spanish squadron and capture of Cavite Arsenal by the Americans.
May 19th. Aguinaldo and seventeen followers land at Cavite from the United States’ vessel Hugh McCullough, and are furnished with arms by Admiral Dewey.
May 24th. Aguinaldo proclaims a Dictatorial Government.
June 23rd. He issues a manifesto claiming for the Philippines a place, if a modest one, amongst the nations.
August 6th. He sends a message to foreign powers claiming recognition.
August 13th. The American troops enter Manila, the Spaniards making only a show of resistance.
August 14th. The capitulation signed. General Merritt issues his proclamation establishing a military government.
August 15th. General McArthur appointed military commandant of the Walled City and Provost-Marshal-General of the city and suburbs.
September 29th. General Aguinaldo makes a speech at Malolos to the Philippine Congress, the keynote of which was independence: “The Philippines for the Filipinos.”
October 2nd. The Peace Commission holds its preliminary meeting in Paris.
November 13th. The insurgents invest Ilo-ilo. Fighting[404]proceeding in other parts of Visayas between Spaniards and natives.
December 10th. The Peace Commission signs the Treaty. Don Felipe Agoncillo, representative of the Philippine Government, hands in a formal protest, of which no notice is taken.
December 24th. The Spaniards evacuate Ilo-ilo.
December 26th. The insurgents occupy the city. The Spaniards evacuate all the southern island stations except Zamboanga. The Philippine Congress at Malolos adjourns.
December 29th. New Philippine cabinet formed; all the members pledged to independence.
President of Congress and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Señor Mabini; Secretary for War, Señor Luna; Interior, Señor Araneta; Agriculture and Commerce, Señor Buencamino; Public Works, Señor Canon.
1899. January 5th. The Washington officials announce that they “expect a peaceful adjustment.” [Blessed are they who expect nothing.]
President McKinley instructs General Otis to extend military government with all dispatch to the whole ceded territory.
January 8th. Protest of Aguinaldo against the Americans.
January 12th. General Otis telegraphs to the War Department that conditions are apparently improving.
Other dispatches represent the situation as daily growing more acute.
January 16th. A telegram was received at Washington from General Otis, of so reassuring a character regarding the position at Manila and Ilo-ilo, that the government officials accept without question the correctness of his statement, that the critical stage of the trouble there is now past and that he controls the situation.
A commission nominated by President McKinley, consisting of Dr. Schurman, President of Cornell University; Professor Worcester of Michigan University, and Mr. Denby.
January 21st. The Philippine constitution is proclaimed at Malolos.
February 4th. Fighting between Filipinos and Americans began at Santa Mesa 8.45 P.M., and continued through the night.
February 5th. Fighting continued all day and ended in the repulse of the Filipinos with heavy loss.
General Otis wires: “The situation is most satisfactory, and apprehension need not be felt.”
February 6th. The U.S. Senate ratifies the Peace Treaty with Spain by 57 to 27.
Senator Gorman in the course of the debate expressed his belief that the battle at Manila was only the beginning. If the treaty was ratified war would follow, lasting for years, and costing many lives, and millions upon millions of money.
[Senator Gorman makes a better prophet than General Merritt or Mr. Foreman.]
February 8th. General Otis wires: “The situation is[405]rapidly improving. The insurgent army is disintegrating, Aguinaldo’s influence has been destroyed.”
February 10th. The Americans attack and capture Calocan. President McKinley signs the Treaty.
February 11th. Ilo-ilo captured by General Miller without loss, but a considerable part of the town was burned.
February 18th. The American flag hoisted at Bacolod in Negros Island, opposite Ilo-ilo.
February 22nd. Tagals attempt to burn Manila, setting fire simultaneously to the Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, and Tondo. Sharp fighting at Tondo. Many natives were burned while penned in by the cordon of guards.
February 23rd. The Americans burned all that remained of Tondo. General Otis issued an order requiring the inhabitants to remain in their homes after 7 P.M.
March 13. Oscar F. Williams does not expect to live to see the end of the war. This is the man who on July 2nd, 1898, “hoped for an influx that year of 10,000 ambitious Americans,” who he said could all live well and become enriched. See Chapter XVIII.
Since the American occupation three hundred drinking saloons have been opened in Manila.
March 19th. Urgent instructions sent from Washington to Generals Otis and Lawton to hasten the end.
March 24th. Engagement at Marilao—the Filipinos are defeated.
New York Times says the situation is both surprising and painful to the American people.
March 31st. The Americans occupy Malolos which the Filipinos had set on fire, after some skirmishing.
April 1st. Troops resting at Malolos.
The ironclad Monadnock was fired on by Filipinos artillery at Parañaque (three miles from Manila), and replied silencing the guns on shore.
April 20th. A column of General Lawton’s force, 140 strong, surrounded and captured by the Filipinos near Binangonan.
April 23rd. Fighting at Quingua. Col. Stotsenburg killed. This was a severe engagement.
April 26th. Americans capture Calumpit. Washington “profoundly relieved.”
April 27th. Fighting near Apalit.
April 30th. General Otis believes that the Filipinos are tired of the war.
May 1st. Anniversary of the Battle of Cavite.
May 2nd. Conference between Filipino envoys and General Otis with the American Civil Commissioners.
General Lawton captures Baliuag.
May 12th. The Nebraska Regiment petitions General McArthur to relieve them from duty, being exhausted by the campaign. Since February 4th, the regiment has lost 225 killed and wounded, and 59 since the fight at Malolos.
May 18th. Filipino peace delegates enter General Lawton’s lines at San Isidro.[406]
May 20th. Admiral Dewey leaves Manila in the Olympia.
May 22nd. The U.S. Civil Commission received Aguinaldo’s Peace Commissioners, and explained to them President McKinley’s scheme of Government.
May 29th. Aguinaldo reported dead.
May 30th. The authorities at Washington admit that more troops are needed for Manila.
June 1st. Mr. Spencer Pratt obtains an interim injunction in the Supreme Court, Singapore, against the sale of Mr. Foreman’s book, “The Philippine Islands.”
June 5th. Skirmishing in the Laguna district. An attempt by the Americans to surround Pio del Pilar fails.
June 13th. A Filipino battery at Las Piñas, between Manila and Cavite, consisting of an old smooth bore gun and two one-pounders open fire on the American lines. A battery of the 1st Artillery, the ironclad Monadnock, and the gunboat Helena directed their fire upon this antiquated battery, and kept it up all the morning.
A correspondent remarks, “This was the first real artillery duel of the war.”
This developed into one of the hardest fights in the war, the Filipinos made a determined stand at the Zapote bridge.
Reports arrive that General Antonio Luna had been killed by some of General Aguinaldo’s guards.
June 16th. The Filipinos attack the Americans at San Fernando and are repulsed with heavy loss.
Mr. Whitelaw Reid, addressing the Miami University of Ohio, denounces the President’s policy, or want of policy, in the Philippines.
June 19th. American troops under General Wheaton march through Cavite Province.
June 21st. General Miles describes the situation at Manila as “very serious.”
June 26th. Twelve per cent. of the American forces sick. Little can now be attempted as the rainy season is now on.
June 27th. General Otis reports that the Filipinos have no civil government.
June 28th. It is stated that General Otis will have 40,000 men available for active operations after the rainy season.
July 12th. General Otis asks for 2500 horses for the organisation of a brigade of cavalry after the rainy season.
The entire staff of correspondents of the American newspapers protest against the methods of General Otis in exercising too strict a censorship over telegrams and letters. They say, “We believe that, owing to the official despatches sent from Manilla and published in Washington, the people of the United States have received a false impression of the situation in the Philippines, and that these despatches present an ultra-optimistic view which is not shared by general officers in the field.”
July 20th. The rainfall at Manila since 1st June has been 41 inches and the country is flooded.
July 23rd. Mr. Elihu Root nominated to succeed Mr. Alger as Secretary for War.[407]
July 27th. General Hall’s division captures Calamba on the lake.
August 1st. Mr. Root sworn in as Secretary for War. He contemplates increasing General Otis’ available force to 40,000 men.
August 15th. General McArthur’s force captures Angeles.
August 17th. Orders issued at Washington to form ten additional regiments to serve in the Philippines. General Otis to have 62,000 men under his command.
August 23rd. General Otis applies the Chinese Exclusion law to the Philippines.
August 24th. The Moros sign an agreement acknowledging the sovereignty of the United States over the entire Philippine Islands.
The Moros of Western Mindanao are asking for permission to drive out the insurgents.
August 28th. President McKinley makes a speech to the 10th Pennsylvanian Regiment lately arrived from Manila. See Chapter XII.
September 1st. Fighting in Negros, American successes.
September 14th. U.S. cruiser Charleston engages a gun mounted by the Filipinos at Olongapó, Subic Bay, and fired sixty-nine shells from her 8-inch guns without silencing the gun, notwithstanding that the Filipinos used black powder.
September 18th. Some of the U.S. Civil Commission had already started to return; remainder leave.
September 23rd. A U.S. squadron, consisting of the Monterey, Charleston, Concord and Zafiro, bombarded the one-gun battery of the Filipinos at Olongapó for six hours, and then landed 250 men who captured and destroyed the gun which was 16-centimetre calibre.
General Otis, in an interview, is reported to have stated that “Things are going very satisfactorily.”
September 28th. General McArthur captures Porac.
September 30th. General Aguinaldo releases fourteen American prisoners. They looked well and hearty, and it was evident that they had been well treated.
October 8th. General Schwan advanced against Noveleta and encountered a heavy resistance, but ultimately took the town and next day occupied Rosario.
October 18th. War now said to be beginning in its most serious phase. The American troops, men and officers, said to be thoroughly discouraged by the futility of the operations ordered by General Otis. They feel that their lives are being sacrificed without anything being accomplished.
October 28th. 17,000 sick and tired soldiers have been sent home and replaced by 27,000 fresh men. 34,000 are on the way or under orders. Total will be 65,000 men and forty ships of war.
October 31st. General Otis reports to the War Department that the continuance of the rainy season still harasses the prosecution of the campaign.
Count Almenas, speaking in the Spanish Senate, said that through the ignorance of the Peace Commission the Batanes[408]Islands, Cagayan Sulu, and Sibutu were not included in the scope of the treaty.
November 7th. General Wheaton, with an American force lands at San Fabian [Pangasinan] and marches towards Dagupan, driving the Filipinos before him.
November 13th. Tarlac captured by the Americans under Colonel Bell. Telegrams from Manila state, “A careful review of the situation made on the spot justifies the prediction that all organised hostile operations on a definite plan are at an end.”
November 14th. The U.S. cruiser Charleston lost on the Guinapak rocks to the north of Luzon, and the crew land on Camiguin Island.
November 28th. The province of Zamboanga [Mindanao] said to have surrendered unconditionally to the commander of the gunboat Castine.
December 20th. General Lawton shot by the insurgents at San Mateo whilst personally directing the crossing of the river by two battalions of the 29th U.S. infantry.
1900. January 20th. The Filipinos capture a pack train of twenty ponies in the Laguna Province. American losses, two killed, five wounded, nine missing.
February 15th. American newspapers report many cases of insanity amongst the U.S. soldiers.
February 20th. General Otis signifies to the War Department his desire for leave of absence from Manila to recruit his health.
March 30th. The bubonic plague, extending in Luzon, and appears in other islands of the Archipelago. Cases suspected to be leprosy reported amongst the U.S. troops.
Independent reports represent the situation in the Philippines as most unsatisfactory. The islands are practically in a state of anarchy.
April 6th. The War Department issues an order recalling General Otis, because his work has been accomplished, and appoints General McArthur in his place.
May 1st. Judge Canty, of Minnesota, makes a report upon the condition of the Philippines.
He says: “All the native tribes, except a small band of Macabebes and the Sulu Mahometans, are against us, and hate the Americans worse than the Spaniards…. The American soldiers are undergoing terrible hardships, and are a prey to deadly tropical diseases.”
June 2nd. General McArthur asks for more troops, and at least three regiments are to be sent.
June 14th. Rear-Admiral Raney cables for another battalion of marines.
June 15th. Macaboulos, a Filipino chieftain, surrenders at Tarlac with 8 officers and 120 riflemen.
June 17th. A regiment of infantry and a battery of artillery embark at Manila for China.
June 19th. It is reported that, in all, 5000 men are to be sent from Manila to China.
June 20th. But to-day, the idea prevails in Washington[409]that, under present conditions, every soldier in the Philippines is needed there.
July 27. Negotiations are being carried on between Spain and the United States for the cession by the former to the latter of the Sibutu and Cagayan Islands on payment of a sum of $100,000.
August 4th. The Filipinos kill or capture a lieutenant of Engineers and fifteen soldiers.
August 8th. Miss Margaret Astor Chanler, who was engaged in Red Cross work in Manila, declares that the hospitals are inadequate. This is confirmed by the Washington correspondent of the World. He says 3700 men are now in hospital, and large numbers are unable to find accommodation. Thousands who are down with fever and other diseases are without doctors or medical supplies. Eight per cent. of the entire force is incapacitated.
August 15th. The Filipinos reported to be gaining ground.
The cost of the war said to be nearly £40,000,000, 2394 deaths, 3073 wounded. There are said to be still 70,000 American troops in the Philippines. The “goodwill” of the war cost £4,000,000.
August 19th. Censored news despatches from Manila show that the Filipinos are increasing their activity, and scorn the offers of amnesty.
September 1st. The Civil Commission in the Philippines, presided over by Judge Taft, assumes the direction of the Government. Judge Taft reports that the insurrection is virtually ended, and that a modus vivendi is established with the ecclesiastical authorities!
September 3rd. General McArthur cables that an outbreak has occurred in Bohol, and that in an engagement near Carmen the Americans lost 1 killed and 6 wounded, and the Filipinos 120 killed.
September 6th. The estimated cost of the Philippines to America is estimated at three-quarters of a million dollars per day.
September 12th. The first public legislative session of the Civil Commission was held. Two million dollars (Mexican) were voted for the construction of roads and bridges, $5000 for the expenses of a preliminary survey of a railroad between Dagupan and Benguet, and $5400 towards the expenses of the educational system.
September 17th. General McArthur cables that Captain McQuiston, who had become temporarily insane, shot a number of men of his company. The others, in self-defence, shot and killed the captain.
September 20th. The Civil Commission reports that large numbers of the people in the Philippines are longing for peace, and are willing to accept the government of the United States.
General McArthur cables reports of fighting in the Ilocos Provinces, from whence General Young telegraphs for reinforcements, also in Bulacan, and in Tayabas.[410]
A desperate engagement is fought in the Laguna Province, where the Americans made an attack upon the Filipino positions, and were repulsed with heavy loss, including Captain Mitchell and Lieutenant Cooper.
The Filipinos are constantly harassing and attacking the American outposts and garrisons around Manila, and have caused fourteen casualties amongst the troops.


pilipinas inhabintants

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