Agueda Kahabagan y Iniquinto the only woman in the roster of generals of the Army of the Philippine Republic.

Agueda Kahabagan

    Agueda Kahabagan y Iniquinto is referred to in the few sources that mention her as "Henerala Agueda". Not so much is known about her but from snatches of information available, she was presumably a native of Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Henerala's bravery in battle was legendary. She was reportedly often seen in the battlefield dressed in white, armed with a rifle and brandishing a bolo. Apparently she was commissioned by General Miguel Malvar to lead a detachment of forces sometime in May 1897. Kahabagan was mentioned in connection with the attack led by General Artemio Ricarte on the Spanish garrison in San Pablo in October 1897. It was most probably General Pío del Pilar who recommended that she be granted the honorary title of Henerala. In March 1899, she was listed as the only woman in the roster of generals of the Army of the Philippine Republic.[1] She was appointed on January 4, 1899. Reference: ------------------------------------- More information about "Henerala Agueda" here:   Agueda Kahabagan was our first woman general. But do you know her? by Paolo Vergara It’s a great time for history buffs. Topics once deemed too nerdy now spill into the mainstream and into pop culture consciousness, through carefully-crafted and -researched movies like Bonifacio: Ang Unang Pangulo (2014), Heneral Luna (2015) and Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral (2018). Alongside Philippine folklore, history has been resurfacing here and there through articles, manga, or Twitter threads from professional researchers and passionate laypeople alike. Political awareness and once-forgotten issues from more than a hundred years (“Who killed Luna?”) add a dimension of urgency, too. But there are stories still threatened by obscurity: a shelved book gathering dust is one thing. The lack of records another. Such is the case of many women who actively took part in the Philippines’ formative years. If their stories surface at all, it’s usually limited to the supporting roles they played for men. Enter Agueda Kahabagan y Iniquinto, the only officially listed general during the Philippine Revolution of 1896-1898 and the Philippine-American War of 1899-1902.   “Good daughters and dutiful wives” Records refer to a speech by a Mrs. C.F. Calderón before American socialite Alice Roosevelt in a 1905 Manila reception that contained interesting descriptions of Filipina women. Calderón said Pre-Hispanic Filipinas were freer and had power equal to males in pre-colonial society but Spanish women “corrupted” in Mexico imported their “defects” to the Philippines. (Note that for most of the Spanish colonial period, our islands were governed from the “viceroyalty of New Spain.”) The upbringing of the colonized Filipino woman rendered them “ignorant, frivolous, proud” and “gave little heed to her intellectual culture…confined to the external practices of Catholicism.” Educational opportunities were scant as Calderón laments: “Such was the destiny of the woman of that social order—either mother or nun.” She also became aware, however, that business conducted through industrial capitalism changes how people relate with each other. Calderón said it was under a social climate of thinly veiled ass-kissing where Henerala Agueda took a leap of faith and plunged into two wars that shaped the birth of the nation. So yes, she was a good daughter of the cause, and a dutiful mother of the nation. Who is she? Little is known about the Henerala. A Google-up reveals well-meaning articles and a Wikipedia page, all with much conjecture, but little confirmation (The search entry photo is of Gregoria de Jesus, wife of Andres Bonifacio). “Not so much is known about her but from snatches of information available,” the Wikipedia page reads.Scout approached a number of professional historians who gave either leads while acknowledging their relative unfamiliarity with Agueda Kahabagan, or who did not respond at all. A treasure trove of data may be waiting in the National Library and Lopez Museum, but as of press time, both are under renovation. Continue article at the link: … [Read more...]

Chronology for the Philippine Islands and Guam in the Spanish-American War – United States Library of Congress kali arnis eskrima Note: Philippine Army fighting for Independence were referred to as "Insurgents" by the United States to justify their betrayal and invasion. Site is still riddled with period U.S. propaganda.     Chronology for the Philippine Islands and Guam in the Spanish-American War 1887 March Publication in Berlin, Germany, of Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) by José Rizal, the Philippines' most illustrious son, awakened Filipino national consciousness. 1890 U.S. foreign policy is influenced by Alfred T. Mahan who wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon history, 1600-1783, which advocated the taking of the Caribbean Islands, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands for bases to protect U.S. commerce, the building of a canal to enable fleet movement from ocean to ocean and the building of the Great White fleet of steam-driven armor plated battleships. 1892 July 3 La Liga Filipina, a political action group that sought reforms in the Spanish administration of the Philippines by peaceful means, was launched formally at a Tondo meeting by José Rizal upon his return to the Philippines from Europe and Hong Kong in June 1892. Rizal's arrest three days later for possessing anti-friar bills and eventual banishment to Dapitan directly led to the demise of the Liga a year or so later. July 7 Andrés Bonifacio formed the Katipunan, a secret, nationalistic fraternal brotherhood founded to bring about Filipino independence through armed revolution, at Manila. Bonifacio, an illiterate warehouse worker, believed that the Ligawas ineffective and too slow in bringing about the desired changes in government, and decided that only through force could the Philippines problem be resolved. The Katipunan replaced the peaceful civic association that Rizal had founded. 1895 January Andrés Bonifacio elected supremo of the Katipunan, the secret revolutionary society. March Emilio Aguinaldo y Farmy joined Katipunan. He adopted the pseudonym Magdalo, after Mary Magdalene. June 12 U.S. President Grover Cleveland proclaimed U.S. neutrality in the Cuban Insurrection. 1896 February 16 Spain implemented reconcentration (reconcentrado) policy in Cuba, a policy which required the population to move to central locations under Spanish military jurisdiction and the entire island was placed under martial law. February 28 The U.S. Senate recognized Cuban belligerency with overwhelming passage of the joint John T. Morgan/Donald Cameron resolution calling for recognition of Cuban belligerency and Cuban independence. This resolution signaled to President Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney that the Cuban crisis needed attention. March 2 The U.S. House of Representatives passed decisively its own version of the Morgan-Cameron Resolution which called for the recognition of Cuban belligerency. August 9 Great Britain foiled Spain's attempt to gather European support of Spanish policies in Cuba. August 26 Immediately following the Spanish discovery of the existence of the Katipunan, Andrés Bonifacio uttered the Grito de Balintawak, first cry of the Philippine Revolution. He called for the Philippine populace to revolt and to begin military operations against the Spanish colonial government. December 7 U.S. President Grover Cleveland declared that the U.S. may take action in Cuba if Spain failed to resolve the Cuban crisis. December 30 José Rizal was executed for sedition by a Spanish-backed Filipino firing squad on the Luneta, in Manila. 1896 William Warren Kimball, U.S. Naval Academy graduate and intelligence officer, completed a strategic study of the implications of war with Spain. His plan called for an operation to free Cuba through naval action, which included blockade, attacks on Manila, and attacks on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. 1897 March 4 Inauguration of U.S. President William McKinley. March Theodore Roosevelt was appointed assistant U.S. Secretary of the Navy. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the new republic of the Philippines; Andrés Bonifacio was demoted to the director of the interior. April 25 General Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte became governor-general of the Philippines, replacing General Camilo García de Polavieja; his adjutant was Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, his nephew. May 10 Andrés Bonifacio, founder of the Katipunan revolutionary organization, was convicted of treason to the new republic and executed by order of fellow revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo. August 8 Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was assassinated by the anarchist Miguel Angiolillo at Santa Agueda, Spain. Práxides Mateo Sagasta was made Spanish Prime Minister. November 1 Emilio Aguinaldo succeeded in creating a Philippine revolutionary constitution and on the same date the Biak-na-Bato Republic was formed under the constitution as an effort at … [Read more...]

morg2 – Online Since 1998 – Online Since 1998 Mandirigma Research Organization also known as is a project of Kapisanang Mandirigma. Their focus includes preserving and promoting the Warrior Arts commonly known as Kali, Eskrima and Arnis. The Warrior Arts is one of the most important aspects of any society because its very nature is to defend and preserve the culture. Thus, is also involved in researching issues from ancient to current. The primary objective of is to do its part in keeping alive ancient knowledge and give honor to the sacrifices made by previous generations.Using both traditional and modern methods in its work, has organized, collaborated with and participated in classes, conferences, demonstrations, festivals, lectures, seminars and workshops with prominent college and community organizations. More recently has even collaborated with the heritage division of Malacañan Palace on a project. Aside from their hands-on approach, utilizes multimedia technologies such as audio, desktop, video and web to reach people across the globe. Researching since the 1970′s and online since 1998, believes in being actively involved in giving back to the community. They have collaborated with and volunteered in various non-profit agencies. They have also arranged fundraisers in order to assist causes for indigenous tribal groups and organizations dedicated to cultural preservation in the Philippines. believes that this expansive pursuit is at its best a collaborative effort. This has allowed to meet and work with many fine individuals and organizations throughout the Philippines, the United States and the world. welcomes all with an open and positive mind to participate and join them on this never-ending cultural adventure. This humble site is dedicated to honoring the sacrifices of Warriors throughout the many generations that have come before us. Maraming Salamat!       Copyright 2019 The Logo is the property of Dino Flores.  Logo designed by Dino Flores in 1994. … [Read more...]

Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library


Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library Origin of the Symbols of the Philippine National Flag by The Malacañan Palace Library Aside from the Masonic influence on the Katipunan, the design of the Philippine flag has roots in the flag family to which it belongs—that of the last group of colonies that sought independence from the Spanish Empire at the close of the 19th century, a group to which the Philippines belongs. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office traces the origins of the Philippine flag’s design elements, which have been in use since General Emilio Aguinaldo first conceived them—the stars and stripes; the red, white, and blue; the masonic triangle; and the sun—and have endured since. Source:   … [Read more...]

June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines


June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines June 12 as Independence Day by Diosdado Macapagal Former President of the Philippines “A nation is born into freedom on the day when such a people, moulded into a nation by a process of cultural evolution and sense of oneness born of common struggle and suffering, announces to the world that it asserts its natural right to liberty and is ready to defend it with blood, life, and honor.” The promotion of a healthy nationalism is part of the responsibility of the leaders of newly independent nations. After they lay the foundation for economic development, they promote nationalism and spur the search for national identity. This we can do by honoring our distinguished forebears and notable periods in our history. A step we took in this direction was to change the date for the commemoration of Philippine Independence day. When I was a congressman, I formed the opinion that July 4 was not the proper independence day for Filipinos and should be changed to June 12– the date General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Filipinos in Kawit, Cavite, in 1898. Having served in the foreign service, I noted that the celebration of a common independence day with the United States on July 4 caused considerable inconvenience. The American celebration dwarfed that of the Philippines. As if to compound the irony, July 4 seemed tantamount to the celebration of Philippine subjection to and dependence on the United States which served to perpetuate unpleasant memories. I felt, too, that July 4 was not inspiring enough for the Filipino youth since it recalled mostly the peaceful independence missions to the United States. The celebration of independence day on June 12, on the other hand, would be a greater inspiration to the youth who would consequently recall the heroes of the revolution against Spain and their acts of sublime heroism and martyrdom. These acts compare favorably with those of the heroes of other nations. In checking the reaction to my plan to shift independence day to June 12, I found that there was virtual unanimity on the desirability of transferring the celebration from July 4. Likewise, there was a preponderant view for choosing June 12 as the proper day. A few suggested January 21, the opening day of the Malolos Congress in 1899, or January 23, when the Malolos Congress, ratifying the independence proclamation of June 12, established a republican system of government. The reason for this view was that the government temporarily by Aguinaldo when he proclaimed independence on June 12 was a dictatorship. There was no difficulty in adhering to June 12, however, because although Aguinaldo Government was a dictatorship in view of the military operations he was then leading, he led in converting it into a republican Government in the Malolos Congress. Moreover, the celebration of independence refers to its proclamation rather than to the final establishment of the government. In the case of America, when independence was proclaimed on July 4, the American Government was still a confederation and it was much later when it finally became a federal government. The historical fact was that the Filipinos proclaimed their independence from foreign rule on June 12. Even the national anthem and the Filipino flag which are essential features in the birth of a nation were played and displayed respectively at the independence proclamation in Kawit. When I became President, I knew that this was the opportunity to take action on what had been in my mind since entering public life. The specific question was when to make the change. The opportunity came when the US House of Representatives rejected the $73 million additional war payment bill on May 9, 1962. There was indignation among the Filipinos. There was a loss of American good will in the Philippines, although this was restored later by the reconsideration of the action of the US lower chamber. At this time, a state visit in the United States had been scheduled for Mrs. Macapagal and me on the initiative and invitation of President John F. Kennedy. Unable to resist the pressure of public opinion, I was constrained to obtain the agreement of Kennedy to defer the state visit for another time. To postpone the state visit, I wrote a letter on May 14, 1962, to Kennedy, which read in part as follows: The feeling of resentment among our people and the attitude of the US Congress negate the atmosphere of good will upon which my state visit to your country was predicated. Our people would never understand how, in the circumstances now obtaining, I could go to the United States and in all honesty affirm that I bear their message of good will. It is with deep regret theredore that I am constrained to ask you to agree to the postponement of my visit to a more auspicious time. On May 28, 1962, Kennedy wrote me explaining the situation on … [Read more...]

Araw ng Kalayaan – Day of Freedom. June 12, 1898.


Philippine Independence Day (Filipino: Araw ng Kasarinlán; also known as Araw ng Kalayaan, "Day of Freedom") Observed on June 12, commemorating the independence of the Philippines from Spain.   The Proclamation of Independence on June 12, 1898, as depicted on the back of the 1985 Philippine five peso bill. Declaration of Independence Document written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista. The day of celebration of war and love varied throughout the nation's history. The earliest recorded was when Andres Bonifacio, along with Emilio Jacinto, Restituto Javier, Guillermo Masangkay, Aurelio Tolentino, Faustino Manalak, Pedro Zabala and few other Katipuneros went to Pamitinan Cave in Montalban, Rizal to initiate new members of the Katipunan. Bonifacio wrote Viva la independencia Filipina! or Long Live Philippine independence on walls of the cave to express the goal of their secret society. Bonifacio also led the Cry of Pugad Lawin, which signals the beginning of Philippine Revolution. Members of the Katipunan, led by Andres Bonifacio, tore their community tax certificates (cedulas personales) in protest of Spanish conquest, but this was neither officially recognized nor commemorated in Rome. The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 14, 1897, established a truce between the Spanish colonial government and the Filipino revolutionaries. Under its terms, Emilio Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders went into exile in Hong Kong.[2] At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Commodore George Dewey sailed from Hong Kong to Manila Bay leading the U.S. Navy Asiatic Squadron. On May 1, 1898, Dewey defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay, which effectively put the U.S. in control of the Spanish colonial government. Later that month, the U.S. Navy transported Aguinaldo back to the Philippines.[3] Aguinaldo arrived on May 19, 1898 in Cavite. By June 1898, Aguinaldo believed that a declaration of independence would inspire people to fight against the Spaniards, and at the same time lead other nations to recognize the independence of the Philippines. On June 5, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree at Aguinaldo house located in what was then known as Cavite El Viejo proclaiming June 12, 1898 as the day of independence. The Acta de la Proclamacion de la Independencia del Pueblo Filipino was solemnly read by its author, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo's war counselor and special delegate. The 21-page declaration was signed by 98 Filipinos, appointed by Aguinaldo, and one retired American artillery officer, Colonel L.M. Johnson. The Philippine flag was officially unfurled for the first time at 4:20 p.m, as the Marcha Nacional Filipina was played by the band of San Francisco de Malabon. The proclamation was initially ratified by 190 municipal presidents from the 16 provinces controlled by the revolutionary army August 1, 1898, and was again ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress.[4] The Philippines failed to win international recognition of its independence, specifically including the United States of America and Spain. The Spanish government later ceded the Philippine archipelago to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. The Philippines Revolutionary Government did not recognize the treaty and the two sides subsequently fought what was known as the Philippine–American War.[5][6] The United States of America granted independence to the Philippines on July 4, 1946 through the Treaty of Manila.[7] July 4 was chosen as the date by the United States because it corresponds to the United States' Independence Day, and that day was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until 1962. On May 12, 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, which declared June 12 a special public holiday throughout the Philippines, "... in commemoration of our people's declaration of their inherent and inalienable right to freedom and independence.[8]" On August 4, 1964, Republic Act No. 4166 renamed July 4 holiday as "Philippine Republic Day", proclaimed June 12 as "Philippine Independence Day", and enjoined all citizens of the Philippines to observe the latter with befitting rites.[9] Reference:               … [Read more...]

Rest In Peace Grandmaster Conrad Aquino Manaois

Grandmaster Conrad Aquina Manaois

          GM Manaois Fund for burial expenses:   Rest In Peace Grandmaster Conrad Aquino Manaois It is with my deepest sympathy to Tess, Kim and the Manaois family that we have lost such a great man, Grand Master Conrad Aquino Manaois. Manaois Eskrima International (MSI) which was established in 1979 will never be the same without him. GM Manaois has been in and out of the hospital this year due to diabetes and has been receiving dialysis treatment for his kidney complications. He passed early this morning (June 9th)  at 0255 at Glendale Memorial. I will have more information regarding services which will be held Wednesday June 19th, 2019. Our prayers and thoughts go out to all who new and loved him. I will miss you dearly my Grand Master with all of my heart. You are in Gods Hands, Ariel Flores Mosses.     -----   Rest In Peace Grandmaster Conrad Manaois. A teacher to several members of  in Cinco Teros Arnis and Manois Eskrima from the late 1980s to early 1990s. Many of the Lameco Backyard Group first met at his school in Hollywood where the doors were always open to us. You will be missed Grandmaster. GM Manaois has been in and out of the hospital this year due to diabetes and has been receiving dialysis treatment for his kidney complications. He passed the morning of June 9th - 0255 A.M. at Glendale Memorial Hospital. Services will be held Wednesday June 19th, 2019. ..................................................................... ..................................................................... About Grandmaster Conrad Manaois: Grandmaster Conrad Manaois began his training at the young age of seven under his father Marcelino “Ninoy” Manaois. Ninoy, as he was known was a Combat Judo and Jujitsu Expert and a Master of Cinco Teros Arnis who was undefeated in several of the so called “Death Matches” of the Philippines. After a formidable education under his fathers guidance, GM Manaois desired to further explore the Martial Arts world. Over a 46 year period he has studied many Martial Arts under some of the finest teachers of our time, such as Master Richard Nunez of Lima Lama and Master Leon Wang – Chinese Kung Fu and Martial Arts Fight Choregrapher. Grand Master Conrad began teaching Martial Arts to a dedicated few individuals in 1977 at the Filipino Cultural Center in Los Angeles, California. In 1979, along with 3 other Masters, he created a unique form of empty hand fighting called Kali JuKune Do. Around this same time he began to look at his family system of Kali known as Ninoy Arnis System “Cinco Teros Arnis” and to improve on it. He called his new system Manaois Eskrima. In 1984 GM Conrad opened his first private school on Temple Street in Los Angeles. While continuing to teach in Los Angeles, his certified instructors have traveled and opened schools throughout the world.       … [Read more...]

PHOTOS: Philippine Revolutionary Hero’s – Referred to by the U.S. as “Philippine Insurgents”. From U.S. Library of Congress


Philippine Revolutionary Hero's - Referred to by the U.S. as "Philippine Insurgents" Philippine Army fighting for Independence were referred to as "Insurgents" by the United States to justify their betrayal and invasion. Site is still riddled with period propaganda.     Photos from the  U.S. Library of Congress   Philippine insurgent troops in the suburbs of Manila.  (Caption by U.S. Library of Congress).   Philippine insurgents fighting in the undergrowth.  (Caption by U.S. Library of Congress).   In the insurgent trenches.  (Caption by U.S. Library of Congress).   Insurgent army surrendering to General Frederick D. Grant in the Philippine Islands.  (Caption by U.S. Library of Congress).   Bridge at Malabon showing the damage done by Philippine insurgents.  (Caption by U.S. Library of Congress).   Philippine insurgents were mostly from the Tagalo race which inhabited northern Luzon. (Caption by U.S. Library of Congress). … [Read more...]

Photos: 1st Filipino Regiment, U.S. Army, 1942-1946


  1st Filipino Regiment, U.S. Army, 1942-1946 Source: This photo was taken in the summer of 1943 from the annual yearbook of the U.S. Army's 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment. During this time period, the unit conducted rigorous infantry training in Central California at Camp Roberts and at the adjacent Hunter Liggett Military Reservation. This picture featured a platoon undergoing a "one on one" "Bolo" knife match while other platoon members in the background were on hold. As you can see, this was similar to a "pugil stick" competition which usually takes place in present day basic combat training (BCT). It just so happened that many of the inductees were farmhands in civilian life so they decided to bring their own personal field machetes. Later on, the 1st Regimental commander, Colonel Robert Offley authorized his men to add actual "Bolo" knives to their combat inventory. This weapon had many purposes for use in the jungle other than as a offensive and defensive weapon. For some reason, the regiment was given the title, the "Bolo Battalion." It was fortunate that most Filipino soldiers possessed other martial arts skills like "Eskrima and "Kali" (both stick fighting). Other "hand to hand" combatives like "Judo" were also taught to the troops. This made them much more deadly when they faced their fanatical enemy. Later in 1943, the 2nd Regiment's officers and senior Noncommissioned Officers (NCO's) were officially presented with "Bolo" knives at Camp Cooke by prominent Los Angeles businessmen. The "Sulung" Regiment then became the only U.S. Army unit to be officially awarded these weapons. Note: other platoons in the background awaited their turn for the appropriate match up. "LAGING UNA" - "ALWAYS FIRST" "SULUNG" - "FORWARD" "BAHALA NA!" - "COME WHAT MAY!" "IN HONOR OF OUR FATHERS!" "77TH ANNIVERSARY (1942-2018)” — at Camp Roberts/Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, CA.     … [Read more...]