Ian A. Greaves, Jose Albovias Jr. and Federico Malibago

Collectively known as “sandata,” the edged weapons of the Philippines displayed in this exhibit are more than mere artifacts. They present a tangible living connection with a culture and history that would otherwise have been forgotten. Edged weapons have played a pivotal role in the cultural development and survival of the Philippine people. For many Philippine ethnic groups, bladed weapons exist as more than just a tool of war; they are a key part of a man’s identity and daily attire.

While limited in its scope to general information, history, and a description of the types of weapons in this exhibit, this article in conjunction with the exhibited items provide a glimpse into the diverse world of Philippine weaponry. We start this discussion with the physical aspects of the Philippines within the greater context of the world. We then turn to the current population breakdown of the nation, illustrating the wide variety of ethnicities and cultures present throughout Philippine history. A brief discussion of Philippine history follows, focusing on general trends and events. Finally, we discuss the edged weapons displayed in this exhibit, with brief descriptions of the ethnic groups who developed these weapons.

According to archeological records, the Philippines was connected to mainland Asia during the last Ice Age. As glaciation lowered sea levels, newly exposed land in the China Sea created the Sunda Shelf, a land mass that covered an area of some 1,800,000 square kilometers. This land mass enabled the present day Philippines to act as a land bridge connecting mainland Asia to Borneo, Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia. During this period the bulk of the flora and fauna of the Philippines were introduced. Approximately 250,000 years ago the glaciers melted, and the land bridges were submerged, creating the Philippine Archipelago.

Geography and Climate
The Philippine Archipelago consists of roughly 7,107 islands, many of volcanic origin. It is located between three major bodies of water: to the northwest the South China Sea, to the east the Pacific Ocean, and to the south the Celebes Sea. The archipelago lies between Southern China and North Borneo, in the latitudes of 4°23’N to 21°25’N and the longitudes of 116°E to 129°E. The total area of the Philippines has a total land area of about 300,000 square kilometers of which only 19% is arable. It has an extensive coastline of roughly 36,000 kilometers. Much of the terrain is mountainous, with narrow but extensive coastal lowlands. The highest point in the Philippines is Mt Apo, located on the southern island of Mindanao, rising 2,954 meters. The Philippines is divided into three geographic areas: Luzon in the north, the Visayas in the center, and Mindanao in the south. It is further divided into 17 regions and 79 provinces.

The climate of the Philippines is tropical and subject to an abundance of rain. It has three primary seasons: a rainy season during the months of June to October, a cool dry season during the months of November to February, and a hot dry season during the months of March to May. The archipelago is located astride the typhoon belt, and is normally affected by about 15 major storms each year, and hit directly by five or six typhoons. Local flooding and mud slides are major problems in the wet season.

According to a July 2005 estimate, the Philippines currently has a population of 87,857,473 people, making it the fourteenth most populous nation. About 96% of the population is under the age of 65, with a median age of 22.7 years. The ethnic breakdown of the Filipino population, according to the latest census data, is: Tagalog 28%, Cebuano 13%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bicolano 6%, Waray 3.4%, and 25% are listed as “Other.” Despite the seeming dominance of Christian groups, within the category of “Other” there exist about 100 non-Christian tribal groups. According to the 2000 census, the religious makeup of the Philippines breaks down as follows: Roman Catholic 81%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 5%, Other 1.8%, Unspecified 0.6%, and None 0.1%. For various reasons it is possible that the numbers of non-Christians in the Philippines were underestimated.

Language is another source of diversity among the Philippine population. The Philippines has two official languages: Filipino (which is based on Tagalog) and English. Besides the official languages there are over 500 local dialects. The eight most common are Tagalog , Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon (Ilonggo), Bicolano, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan.

Pre-Colonial Cultural Influences
Cultural diffusion among the Filipino population has been due largely to effects of regional migration through trade and settlement. While there are currently no archaeological findings to support an explicit wave theory of population migration, we can trace some of the means by which migratory cultures have affected the Philippines.

Before Western colonization, the Philippines experienced the influences of two major cultural groups: Indian and Chinese. Through trade and settlement, cultural elements from both of these groups found their way into indigenous cultures.

Early Philippine history books stated that the Philippines were once part of the Indo-Malay South East Asian Empires of Sri Vijaya (which existed between 683 and 1377 CE) and Majapahit (which existed between 1293 CE and 1528 CE). The inclusion of the Philippines as a vassal state of these two empires has been refuted by recent archaeological and historical research. There is no proof that either of these empires ruled parts of the Philippines directly, although Indo-Malay cultural influences are certainly found in various parts of the Philippines. As early as 900 CE, Indian-influenced groups from mainland SE Asia may have settled in the southern Philippines. Through the arrival of traders and immigrants, elements of Indian religion, language, and literature were brought to the Philippines. These influences can be seen in the early use of Sanskrit by ancient Filipinos as well as the development of Indian based dress (such as head scarves) and the use of Indian techniques in the manufacturing of textiles. Furthermore, much of the folklore and superstitions of Filipino groups have definable Hindu roots.

The first recorded contact with China came in 982 CE when several Filipino traders arrived in Canton. Through the Sung, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, Chinese-Filipino trade continued to expand. Filipino traders brought to China native products such as gold, beeswax, pearls, and edible bird’s nests. Soon after, the trade in such lucrative goods began to attract Chinese immigrants to the Philippines, particularly to the cities of Jolo and Manila. These immigrant traders interweaved themselves into Philippine society, marrying local women, and today most Filipinos have some degree of Chinese genetic heritage. Such lively interaction between the two peoples brought many Chinese influences into Philippine culture. For example, Filipinos learned the manufacture of gunpowder, refined techniques of metallurgy, and the making of brass gongs from the Chinese. Furthermore, the Filipino diet was greatly transformed by Chinese culture, and the consumption of Chinese staples such as rice, buns and noodles became widespread. Yet, probably the largest Chinese contribution came in the form of language. Over 1,500 Chinese words are now found in the Filipino language, far surpassing the earlier Indian influences.

Contacts with Islam and the Western World
In the 14th century CE, Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduced Islam into the southern islands and extended their influence as far north as Luzon. Subsequently, Muslims gained considerable presence in the southern Philippines, including the Sulu archipelago, southern and western Mindanao, and Palawan. Substantial numbers of Muslims still reside in these areas and in 1996 many finally obtained some measure of independence through creation of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. The Muslims historically were organized in tribal groups, or Sultanates, which waxed and waned in strength and dominance. The Sulu Sultanate was founded in 1392 CE and was the strongest for a long while, rivaling the older Brunei Sultanate in North Borneo. The Maranao and Maguindanao Sultanates on Mindanao also enjoyed later periods of ascendancy. Throughout their history the Muslim groups (termed “Moros” by the Spanish) have been fiercely independent and resisted first the Spanish and later American colonial rule. Neither colonial powers completely subdued them.

The first Europeans to encounter the Philippines were a Spanish expedition led by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1521 CE). Other Spanish expeditions followed, including one from New Spain (Mexico) under López de Villalobos, who in 1542 named the islands for the infante Philip, later Philip II. The conquest of the Philippines by Spain did not begin in earnest until 1564, when another expedition from New Spain, commanded by Miguel López de Legaspi, overwhelmed Cebu. Spanish leadership was soon established over many small independent communities that previously had known no central rule. By 1571, when López de Legaspi established the Spanish city of Manila on the site of a Moro town he had conquered the year before, the Spanish foothold in the Philippines was secure, despite opposition of the Portuguese who were eager to maintain their monopoly on the trade of East Asia.

By the end of the 16th century, Manila had become a leading commercial center of East Asia, conducting a flourishing trade with China, India, and the East Indies. The Philippines supplied some wealth (including gold) to Spain, and the richly laden galleons sailing between the islands and New Spain were often attacked by English pirates. From 1600 to 1663 there were frequent clashes with the Dutch, who were laying the foundations of their rich empire in the East Indies, and with Moro pirates.

Filipinos were frequently unhappy with Spanish rule and uprisings were common. As the power of the Spanish Empire waned in the late 19th century, the Jesuit orders became more influential in the Philippines and acquired great amounts of property and power. Opposition to the power of the clergy led in large measure to a rising nationalist sentiment for independence. Spanish injustices, bigotry, and economic oppressions fed the Propaganda Movement, which was greatly inspired by the writings of Dr José Rizal.

The arrest of Rizal by the Spanish in 1892 was followed immediately by formation of a secret society, the Katipunan, with the goal of overthrowing Spanish colonial rule. After Rizal’s execution in 1896, an armed revolt led by the Katipunan began in the province of Cavite and spread throughout the major islands. Emilio Aguinaldo achieved considerable success as leader of the Katipunan forces before a peace was patched up with Spain. The peace was short-lived, however, for neither side honored its agreements, and a new revolution was brewing when the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898.

After the U.S. naval victory in Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey supplied Aguinaldo with arms to pursue battle with the Spanish. When US land forces arrived, the Filipinos had taken the entire island of Luzon, except for the old walled city of Manila. The Filipinos had also declared their independence and established a democratic republic. Their dreams of independence were crushed when the Philippines were transferred from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1898) that concluded the Spanish-American War.

In February 1899, Aguinaldo led a new revolt, this time against US rule. Defeated on the battlefield, the Filipinos turned to guerrilla warfare, and their subjugation became a mammoth project for the United States—one that cost far more money and took far more lives than the Spanish-American War. The insurrection was effectively ended with the capture of Aguinaldo in 1901, but the question of Philippine independence remained a burning issue in the politics of both the United States and the islands. The matter was complicated by the growing economic ties between the two countries. The advent of the Great Depression in the United States in the 1930s and the first aggressive moves by Japan in Asia (1931) shifted US sentiment sharply toward the granting of independence to the Philippines. Invasion and occupation of the Philippines by Japan (1941-1945) delayed independence until 1946. Since that time the Philippines has been an independent democratic nation.

Historical Timeline

250,000 BCE Melting glaciers cause land bridges connecting the Philippines to mainland Asia to disappear.
900 CE Settlement of Indian influenced Indochinese groups in the Southern Philippines.
982 First recorded contact between the Philippines and China.
1310 Islam first comes to the Sulu Archipelago
1390 First Sultanate in the Philippines founded in Sulu.
1521 Magellan is the first Westerner to land in the Philippines.
1542 During an expedition to the islands by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos the archipelago is named Islas Filipinas in honor of the Spanish Crown Prince Philip
1565 Conquest of Cebu by Spanish forces led by Miguel de Legaspi
1570 Defeat of Rajah Soliman by Spanish forces led by Miguel de Legaspi
1571 Manila established as main Spanish settlement on Luzon
1892 Rizal arrested and deported. Katipunan society founded by Bonifacio.
1896 Rizal executed. Armed insurrection against Spain organized by Katipunan under leadership of Aguinaldo
1898-1901 Philippine-American War
1901-1915 Moro-American armed conflicts
1941-1945 Japanese occupation
1946 Independence declared

Edged Weapons of the Muslim Regions

The kris is the most famous Moro weapon (#1-6). Variations are found in every Moro tribe and it was a key symbol of a man’s status and rank in society as well as being a powerful talisman. Kris blades are wide at the base, double-edged, and can be waved, half-waved half-straight, or straight (straight blades were more practical in combat). Older kris had fewer waves and the waves were deeper and wider (#2,6). Over time the waves became shallower, tighter, and more numerous and therefore required greater skill to prevent the blade bouncing off or being stuck in an enemy’s body. The higher number of waves meant the more potent the kris was in talismanic power. Sometimes engravings (often filled in with brass or silver inlay) are found on the blade in plant motifs (vines, foliage, etc.) or Arabic script. Many kris blades are forged with fullers. Moro kris are cutting and slashing swords versus the stabbing keris of the Malay and Indonesians. Kris range from 45 to 65 centimeters in length. Older kris before the 19th century tended to be smaller in size. Laminated steel patterns are sometimes evident. Opposite the hook like fretwork on the guard of the blade is a cavity in the form of an elephant, eagle, or mouth of a naga (a mythical snake).

Hilts of krises are either straight or slightly curved. Commonly the pommel is in the form of a horse hoof (#3,4,6), or a stylized cockatoo head with beak and crest (#2,5). Usually the pommel is made of hardwood burl with the handle being wrapped in lacquered fiber. Upper class kris pommels (#4,5,6) are often made of ivory, silver, brass, or other exotic materials with handles wrapped in chased bands of silver or swassa (copper-gold alloy) or braided wire. Large extravagant cockatoo pommels appeared toward the end of the 19th century and are called junggayan. Pommels before the 19th century were very small (#2,6).

Moro kris scabbards were made of wide grain native hardwoods like mahogany, teak, and narra, lashed together with rattan or metal strips (#3-6). Sometimes the crosspiece is separate from the bottom, but more often they are carved together. Around the mid-20th century mother-of-pearl was introduced to scabbard work and kris pommels. Scabbards of the nobility are bound with bands of plain or chased silver, brass, or swassa instead of rattan bindings (#4,6). Some nobility scabbards even have crosspieces made of ivory or horn.

Barung (Barong)
Barung are the favored weapon of the Sultanate of Sulu. This single-edged, leaf-shaped blade is an amazingly effective slicer and chopper, capable of cleaving a man in two. Barung blades are thick and heavy, ranging from 30 to 60 centimeters in length, and often laminated. Some barung blades were made by Chinese smiths and are of high quality. Decoration of the blade was rare, although there are examples with inlaid brass dots or chiseled plant designs inlaid with brass or silver.

Pommels were usually in the form of a stylized cockatoo (#7-12). Most handles had a silver (sometimes brass) sleeve and lacquered braided fiber rings that lie on top. Nobility hilts were made of ivory, carabao horn, or Philippine ebony. One example in the collection is made of fossilized elephant molar ivory (#10). These hilts were carved in large and elaborate junggayan styles (#8,11,12). Lower class and fighting barung had less elaborate hilts and were smaller in size (#7,9). In the mid-20th century, hilt forms changed where crests became triangular and beaks became more rectangular and massive.

Scabbards were made of wide grained hardwood boards lashed together with rattan (#9,10). Older barung scabbards are thinner whereas post-World War 2 examples are much thicker with a central ridgeline. Like kris scabbards of the post World War 2 era, mother-of-pearl inlays began to appear at the throat as well.

Moros of Mindanao occasionally used the panabas, a fairly rare and large heavy chopping weapon that ranges from 60 to 120 centimeters in length (13-16). It can deliver horrible cleaving blows and was sometimes used for executions. As a weapon of execution, the panabas also came to symbolize the power and prestige of the chieftain (datu) in his ability to control violence. It was used as a combat weapon and as a display of power. Sometimes on the battlefield warriors wielding the panabas would follow the main group of warriors, mopping up any survivors after the first wave of attack.

Panabas blades are curved, being wider at the tip than at the hilt, and made of laminated steel. A rare form of panabas has an “S” shaped blade sharpened partially along the backside (#15,16). File work in the form of talismanic “X” are found on some of the spines (#15). Hilts are made of hardwood often wrapped in braided rattan (#13), although some are wrapped in metal bands (#14-16). Scabbards for this weapon were made of plain wood and are rare (#15). Warriors frequently discarded the scabbards prior to battle, contributing to their scarcity today. Sometimes panabas were carried into battle wrapped in cloth and slung across the back.

Warriors of Mindanao favored the kampilan (#17-20). This single-edged sword is noted for its fearsome look, ranging up to 110 centimeters in length, amongst the largest of Moro swords. The kampilan was a sword for war and the court. As a court sword it represented the datu’s prestige and power. Related to the klewang, the blade is narrow near the hilt gradually swelling in width into an almost trapezoidal profile at the end. The blades are often laminated with various styles of tip. Many have a spike at the tip (#18) that some believe was decorative, and others think was used as a distraction in countering an enemy blow. Kampilan blades often have holes near the tip sometimes filled with brass. Rarer still some kampilan tips have kris-like fretwork; others have engravings down the entire blade. Various hilt styles exist, but the most common is the bifurcated type that may be a stylized version of an open alligator mouth (#17,18,20), and some had horse hair decoration (#21). Although the kampilan can be used with one hand, it is primarily a two-handed sword. At times the hilt was bound to the hand by a talismanic piece of cloth to prevent slippage. Sometimes a chain mail covering was attached to prevent the hand from injury. Almost all kampilans originally had large metal staples protruding from the cross guard above the grip. Hilts were made of hardwood, but expensive datu examples may be covered in silver sheet or made of expensive materials like ivory or bone.

The scabbards are very simple (#20) and often would be discarded when going into battle. Scabbards were made in two pieces lashed together by rattan or fiber. The sword could be withdrawn quickly by cutting through the thin lashings. Some scabbards were also made of bamboo or were made with a handle that allowed half of the scabbard to serve as a small shield.

Considerably rarer than the panabas, the bangkung is a short, single-edged weapon that varies from 50 to 75 centimeters (#21,22). Close to the hilt, the laminated blade is thick and narrow increasing in width towards the tip. The cutting edge often has a slight upward curve. Hilts on older bangkung were of the cockatoo style with a metal sleeve similar to the barung. Those produced since the mid-20th century have horse hoof pommels wrapped with braided cord (#21,22). Scabbards are wide at the end to accommodate the broad end of the sword (#21).

Pira are uncommon Moro weapons that have thick curved single-edged blades (#23). This sword is a fighting weapon favored by the Yakan. The handle is a flamboyant version of the cockatoo hilt with a long up curving piece protruding from the pommel. Pommels are made of horn or hardwood with a silver or brass sleeve. Blades are laminated and from 30 to 50 centimeters in length. Modern pira have evolved into a plainer working blade with a horse hoof hilt. Scabbards are similar to the barung scabbards at the throat but with a flat rectangular bottom, all wrapped in rattan.

The gunong (also known as a puñal or puñal de kris) is often worn at the back in a waist sash or hidden in various places. It is a dagger of last defense as well as a utility knife, carried by both sexes. Many gunong blades are double-edged and are either straight or wavy (#24,25). Older gunongs had straight hilts (#24), which changed to the bulbous form in the 20th century (#25,26). During this time gunong also started having more extravagant fittings with chased bands on scabbards, belt clips, guards, and bulbous ferrules.

US restrictions on the carrying of traditional edged weapons left a gap in daily attire for a culture that required the wearing of a bladed weapon. The gunong filled in this gap and did not arouse the fears of US colonial authorities. After World War 2 nickel and aluminum became prevalent along with thinner blades. Newer gunong became larger than old pieces. Some of the best Moro chasing work may be found on tourist versions, with some blades having copper, brass, or nickel inlay.

Edged Weapons of the Lumad
Lumad refers to indigenous groups that are neither Muslim nor Christian. There are 18 Lumad groups: Ata, Bagobo, Banwaon, B’laan, Bukidnon, Dibabawon, Higaonon, Mamanwa, Mandaya, Manguwangan, Manobo, Mansaka, Subanon, Tagakaolo, Tasaday, T’boli, Teduray, and Ubo. Lumad peoples comprise 18% of the Philippine population. They live in the hinterlands, forests, lowlands, and coastal areas. At the beginning of the 20th century Lumads controlled 17% of Mindanao but by 1980 they had 6%. Heavy migration from the Visayas and government sponsored resettlement turned Lumads into minorities. Unlike the Moros, Lumads did not resist but retreated into the mountains and forests. Edged weapons are varied and adapted from agricultural tools.

The Mandaya live on the eastern coast of Mindanao. Spears (#29), heavy bolos (#31,32), and a characteristic knife (#30) are their traditional weapons. The Moros and Bagobos influenced the style of spears. Mandaya spears are double edged with a central ridge and a distinct V-point. Spearheads are socketed to the shaft instead of a tang. Occasionally there is fine chiseling and paneling (#29).

Mandaya bolos have wide bellies that narrow toward the hilt. An odd appendage appears in this angle on older Mandaya bolos (#32). Older blades often had a diamond cross-section (#32) while newer blades were flat with a bevel.

Wooden hilts have stylized pommels that may represent the naga (mythical snake). Scabbards are wooden, wide, and heavy with an upturned toe. They were worn tied to the waist through a large wooden hanger midway down the scabbard and held together by rattan strips and cloth.

The Mandaya knife is unique (#30). The blade is double-edged, spear-shaped, and symmetrical with a central ridge. The pommel has two horns with part of the tang protruding as a spike for several centimeters between the two horns. Hilts are made of wood or horn and may be embellished with silver sheet and wire.

The T’boli live in the southern part of Cotabato province around lake Sebu. There may be 100,000-150,000 T’boli who practice “slash and burn” agriculture, using the cleared land to raise rice, cassava and yams. Additional food comes from hunting and fishing.

Edged weapons of the T’boli include swords, knives, and spears. Two swords are described, called tok and kafilan. Metal smiths recycle old broken gongs or other metal objects and use outside sources of steel (for example, scavenging the steel springs from abandoned trucks). Blades are forged with skill and are heat-treated, usually being decorated with geometric patterns. At times these are even inlaid with brass or copper. T’boli blades are among the best in the Philippines, ranging from 40 to 60 centimeters in length, and sharp enough to shave. They are even used to cut down trees because they are nearly impossible to break. Similarities exist between these swords and Moro kampilans.

Hilts and guards are cast in one piece from brass or bronze and are covered in geometric designs. All of this is done using the lost wax method, making each one unique. The flared end of the hilt has two rows of rings with brass chains and hawk bells (#37).

Scabbards are rectangular, wooden, often carved in geometric designs, and wrapped in T’boli cloth. Recent scabbards may also have metal bands. Occasionally two to four projections of wood or metal come from the end of the scabbard, similar to Bagobo sheaths.

The Bagobo trace their origin to the first Hindus who came to Mindanao from the Sri Vijayan and Majapahit peoples. Through intermarriage with the locals a new society formed calling itself Bagobo (bago = “new” and obo = “growth”). The upland Bagobo traditionally lived east and south of Mount Apo and east of Cotabato. The population at 58,000 (1994) is now scattered in the interior beyond Davao City while those on the coastal plains have adapted to lowland life. Bagobo have a fondness for beadwork that adorns clothing and every day items. Edged weapons include swords, spears and knives. Older swords rivaled T’boli examples in quality, and were sought after by other Lumad tribes. Laminated steel blades ranged from 40 to 60 centimeters in length and occasionally showed complex patterns like twist core damascus (#38).

Sword hilts have a characteristic design: cast brass handle and guard in geometric designs (all made by the lost wax method) capped with a broad, carved hardwood hilt that is flat and down curved. Along the bottom edge of the wood pommel often hang brass chains with hawk bells. At the end of the pommel is a brass thimble filled with colored beads in black resin (#38). The guard is octagonal with a short brass extension that hooks over the scabbard to keep the sword in place.

Scabbards were made of wood with carved areas sometimes inlaid with various metals. The wood is wrapped with cloth and rattan strips. Bagobos made their scabbard toes square or pointed, often with two to four wood or brass protrusions.

Edged Weapons of the Visayas
The Visayas are the prominent group of islands in the central Philippines. Samar and Leyte comprise the eastern region, Cebu, Bohol, and Negros Orientale the central region, and Panay, Guimaros, and Negros Occidentale the western region. Edged weapons are strikingly different, reflecting different ethnic groups and cultures.

Eastern Visayas
The talibon is the characteristic knife and sword, with a range of local terms for this weapon. Blades often have a straight or concave spine that angles down abruptly near the handle and then widens in the middle before tapering to the point. Lengths vary and cutting edges are beveled on one side while the other side is flat. Handles on older talibon are hardwood with three-lobed pommels in the shape of a flower (#27,28). Rattan wrapping secures the handle and prevents the wood from cracking. Scabbards are also made of hardwood wrapped in rattan strips. Just below the throat there is a wooden protrusion for securing the scabbard with rope around the waist. The ends of these scabbards are often upturned (#27).

Older forms of talibon were called garab and were favored by various insurrectionist groups on Samar and Leyte when fighting the Spanish and US at the turn of the 20th century with great effect. Since this time, however, hilt shapes and styles have proliferated in number. These knives were popular with US servicemen returning form the Philippines after World War 2 and as souvenirs ever since.

Western Visayas
Panay and Negros have two distinctive sword types: “tenegre” with fat-bellied blades that come to a pronounced point (#42,43,44,46), and “binangon” with straight edges and curved spines (#45). Edges on these blades are beveled on one side and flat on the other, similar to talibon. Guards are common and older versions had wood or horn discs, or lacked a guard, but towards the end of the 19th century they started having metal disks, “S” or “D” shaped guards.

Handles are wood and early examples were bare (#42) or wrapped with rattan strips, but post 1900 they had a metal sleeve (#43-46). Most striking are the pommels. Many have beautifully carved demonic heads of deities that may have originated from Hindu influences in the 13th and 14th centuries. Several have elongated noses. Simpler handle forms began in the late 19th century with a round knob and small beak versus a deity. They lack a guard and have a metal sleeve.

Scabbards are wood and early examples resemble talibon scabbards with rattan wrappings and a wooden block as a hanger to suspend a rope belt (#42,44). Later versions used a leather flap at the throat for suspension with rattan or metal bands around the scabbard (#43,45).

There are elaborate versions of these swords decorated in silver or brass sheet on the handles, guards, and scabbards (#46). More embellished examples are sometimes called sanduko bolos.

Edged Weapons of Luzon
Luzon is the largest of the Philippine Islands, home to several ethnic groups like the Tagalog in the central area of Luzon, the Bicolano and Batanguano to the south, the Aeta (Negritos), Ilocano, and various Igorot tribes (head hunters) in the north. The Spanish controlled the southern and central areas of Luzon while the northern and mountainous regions were isolated from the West until the 20th century. Here head hunting persisted until after World War 2. Edged weapons of central and southern Luzon frequently show Spanish influence in style and construction, whereas weapons of the northern mountain peoples have retained their indigenous forms.

Central/Southern Luzon
Swords of these areas show marked Spanish influence. Late 19th century swords use by Katipunan fighters were often pointed, single-edged, straight or slightly curved, laminated, and had either “S” or “D” guards (#39,40,41,49). Their wood handles had full-length tangs peened over a small metal plate at the end. Scabbards were made of leather with a leather belt.

Other sword styles were produced such as the rare single-edged wavy blade swords (#47) and double-edged wavy blade daggers (#50) similar to those of the Moro but with Spanish style handles and guards. Some Katipunan bladed weapons had engraved talismanic figures or personal inscriptions.

More basic knives from the same area and period were called tabak (#51-53). These reflect the Spanish ban on sharp pointed knives. Their blades were either forged without a point or had the point removed. Handles are made of wood or horn with one or two metal sleeves. Again, the tangs pass through the handle and are peened over a metal plate at the end.

Northern Luzon
The characteristic weapon of many of the Igorot mountain tribes (Ifugao, Benguet, Bontoc, and Kalinga) is the head axe. Kalinga head axes have a deeply concave edge (#33,35) while Bontoc examples have a straighter edge (#34). Both types have a lightly convex spine and a narrow projection or spike (#33-35). A hardwood handle, about 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter and 20 to 50 centimeters long, is attached to a short tang just below the start of the rear spike. Included is a projection along the length of the shaft that acts as a resting-place for the forefinger. The head axe is so named because Igorot headhunters would use these for decapitating victims. Binaroy axes (#36) have a narrower blade and were used only for agriculture.

Igorot knives are exemplified by the pinahig and hinalung used by the Ifugao (#54-56). The pinahig (#54,55) is a heavy fat bellied single-edged bolo made of laminated steel. Bare steel or wood wrapped in heavy braided rattan comprise the handle. The knife is carried in an open-faced scabbard of wood hollowed out to the shape of the blade, and a retaining block lashed across the front with rattan strips. A woven belt attaches the scabbard to the waist. The hinalung has a double-edged blade with a spear point that is constructed in the same way as the pinahig. Sometimes the handle is hollow allowing it to be mounted on a pole and used as a spear. The scabbard is the same as the pinahig.

Igorots have distinctive shields for combat. The wooden shield of the Kalinga (#57) is similar to other Igorot shields in that it is long (about 100 to 130 centimeters), with prominent protrusions at each end, and held together by heavy rattan bindings.

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Warren, James Francis. The Sulu Zone 1768 – 1898 : The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. Singapore University Press: Singapore, 1981.
Zaide, Sonia. The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All Nations Publishing: Manila, 1998.

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